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Researchers have recognized a fungus which can damage down plastics. The species could be a beneficial device as we strive to lessen the impact of waste fabric at the surroundings.

Fungi feast

Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Kunming Institute of Botany have discovered a fungus that could doubtlessly assist us to deal with the trouble of non-biodegradable plastics. The fungus is ready to break down waste plastics in a depend on weeks that might in any other case persist in the environment for years.

Aspergillus tubingensis is commonly observed in soil, however, the have a look at observed that it is able to additionally thrive at the surface of plastics. It secretes enzymes which smash down the bonds between person molecules after which use its mycelia to break them aside.
 
It’s conceivable that there are all types of fungi with beneficial properties that we don’t but know approximately — but as deforestation and different human activity hold to spoil habitats, we would never advantage get admission to such species. The researchers actually found Aspergillus tubingensis on a rubbish unload in Islamabad, Pakistan.
 
Plastic Capability
 
The have a look at found that there are several elements that affect the fungus’ capability to interrupt down plastic. The temperature and pH stability of its environment, in addition to the kind of lifestyle medium in the vicinity, had an impact on its performance.
 
The following step for those researchers is to figure out what conditions might be ideal to help facilitate a realistic implementation.
 
The fungus might be used to assist address the problem of plastic particles swimming around in our water supply via being put to paintings in a waste remedy plant, or in soil contaminated with the cloth. The benefits of mycoremediation — the exercise of the usage of fungi to degrade undesirable substances — have become increasingly more apparent as we discover species which could degrade extra varieties of fabric.
INTRODUCTION
 
Physical therapy is an essential segment of modern health care system. It is a “science of healing and art of caring”. It pertains to the clinical examination, evaluation, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal, Neurological, Cardio-Vascular and Respiratory systems’ functional disorders including symptoms of pain, edema, physiological, structural and psychosomatic ailments. It deals with methods of treatment based on movement, manual therapy, physical agents, and therapeutics modalities to relieve the pain and other complications.
 
Hence, Physical therapy covers basic parameters of healing sciences i.e. preventive, promotional, diagnostic, rehabilitative, and curative.
 
GOALS OF THE PROGRAM
 
THE PURPOSE OF THE DOCTOR OF PHYSICAL THERAPY PROGRAM (DPT) IS TO PREPARE PHYSICAL THERAPISTS WHO WILL:
 
  1. Be primary providers of physical therapy care.
  2. Serve as responsible members in the professional community and are willing and able to assume leadership roles in the communities they serve.
  3. Identify researchable problems, advocate and participate in research, and incorporate research findings into clinical practice.
  4. Understand and place in context the social, economic and cultural issues of practice and effectively advocate for changes in policy.
  5. Correlate theory with practice and think creatively about, react to, adapt or shape new practice environments.
  6. Participate in and provide education for communities, patients, peers, students and others.
 
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM
 
GRADUATES OF THE DOCTOR OF PHYSICAL THERAPY PROGRAM WILL:
 
  1. Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of the basic and clinical sciences relevant to physical therapy, both in their fundamental context and in their application to the discipline of physical therapy.
  2. Understand, correlate and apply theoretical foundations of knowledge to the practice of physical therapy; evaluate and clarify new or evolving theory relevant to physical therapy.
  3. Demonstrate the behaviors of the scholarly clinician by developing and utilizing the process of critical thinking and inquiry, particularly focused on the improvement of the practice of physical therapy and the delivery of health care.
  4. Engage in reflective practice through sound clinical decision making, critical self-assessment and commitment to lifelong learning.
  5. Demonstrate mastery of entry level professional clinical skills. Provision of these services is based on the best available evidence and includes physical therapy examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, prevention activities, wellness initiatives and appropriate health care utilization.
  6. Prepared to influence the development of human health care regulations and policies that are consistent with the needs of the patient and of the society.
  7. Demonstrate leadership, management, and communication skills to effectively participate in physical therapy practice and the health care team.
  8. Incorporate and demonstrate positive attitudes and behaviors to all persons.
  9. Demonstrate the professional and social skills to adapt to changing health care environments to effectively provide physical therapy care.
The International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) was initiated as a standardization committee by the European Society of Haematology (ESH) in 1963 and officially constituted by the International Society of Hematology (ISH) and the ESH in Stockholm in 1964. The ICSH is recognised as a Non-Governmental Organisation with official relations to the World Health Organisation (WHO).
 
The ICSH is a not-for-profit organisation that aims to achieve reliable and reproducible results in laboratory analysis in the field of diagnostic haematology.
 
The ICSH coordinates Working Groups of experts to examine laboratory methods and instruments for haematological analyses, to deliberate on issues of standardization and to stimulate and coordinate scientific work as necessary towards the development of international standardization materials and guidelines.

CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Published in Immunology
Saturday, 15 July 2017 16:00
The major cells of the immune system are lymphocytes. Lymphocytes that are critical for immune reactions are of two types namely B-cells and T-cells. Both cells develop from stem cells located in the liver of the foetus and in bone marrow cells of adults.
 
The lymphocytes which are differentiated in the bone marrow are B-cells. The lymphocytes that migrate to thymus and differentiate under its influence are called T-cells. The young lymphocytes migrate to lymphoid tissues such as spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils where they undergo final maturation. Matured lymphocytes circulate in the body fluids. T-cells are responsible for cellular immunity and B-cells produce antibodies about 20 trillion per day.
 
Both components require antigens to trigger them into action but they respond differently.
 
Antigens
 
An antigen is a substance when introduce into an individual, stimulates the production of an antibody with which it reacts. Antigens are large molecules of proteins or polysaccharides. Some of the antigens are the parts of microorganisms others include pollen, egg white, certain fruits, vegetables, chicken, feathers etc.

Antibodies
 
Antibodies are protein molecules called immunoglobulin (Ig). They are produced by lymphocytes. The antibodies inactivate antigens. An antibody  consists of four amino acid chains bounded together by disulphide bonds. Of the four chains two are long, heavy chains and two are short, light chains. All of them are arranged in the shape of the letter ‘Y’. The tail portion of antibody having two heavy chains is called constant fragment (Fc). On the tip of each short arm, an antigen- binding fragment (Fab) is present which specifically hold antigen.
 
Antibody immunity10
 
Based upon the five types of heavy chains, the immunoglobulin's are classified into five major types. Light chains are similar in all types of Immunoglobulin's.
 
TYPES OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN'S
 
lgG is the most important long acting antibody representing about 80% of the antibodies. The second important antibody is IgM. IgA is called secretory antibody, found in tears, saliva and colostrum, (the first milk secreted by mother). IgD serves as a receptor site at the surface of B cells to secrete other antibodies. IgE plays an important role in allergic reactions by sensitizing cells to certain antigens.
 
iimmunoglobulin types12
Lizard, bird and rabbit all these three animals come under the group amniota. The taking away of nitrogenous un wanted waste products from the body is called excretion. If excretion takes place not  properly in the body they become poisonous. Vertebrates main excretory organs are called as kidneys. Skin, gills, lungs, liver and intestine are also acts as accessory excretory organs.
 
The kidneys are made up with numerous uriniferous tubules.kidneys are located in dorsal side of coelom.
 
A typical uriniferous tubule having three parts.
 
  1. Ciliated peritoneal funnel
  2. Malpighian body
  3. Ciliated convoluted tube
 
EXCRETORY SYSTEM - GARDEN LIZARD EXCRETORY SYSTEM - PIGEON EXCRETORY SYSTEM - RABBIT
1. Paired kidneys are dark red and irregular in shape. These are flattened organs. 1. Kidneys are dark red and some what rectangular and flattened organs. 1. Kidneys are dark red and bean shaped organs.
2. Kidneys are located in the posterior region of the abdominal cavity and attached to the dorsal wall by a fold of peritoneum. 2. Kidneys are situated in the anterior part of the abdomen. 2. Kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdominal cavity.
3. Right and left kidneys are opposite to each other. 3. Same as in calotes. 3. The two kidneys are distinct. The right kidney lies much ahead than the left kidney.
4. They are attached to the dorsal muscles. 4. They are fitted in the hollows of the pelvic girdle. 4. Same as in calotes.
5. They are very near to the median line kidneys are Metanephros type. 5. They are a little away from the median line. Kidneys are Meta nephros type. 5. They are well away from the median line. Kidneys are meta ne phros type.
6. Each kidney has two lobes Anterior lobe is broad and posterior lobe is broad Hilus is absent. 6. Each kidney has three lobes They are anterior, median and posterior lobes. Hilus is absent. 6. Each kidney is a single-lobed structure. Inner side of the kidney has a concave depression is known as the 'hilus'.
7. The two kidneys are united posteriorly forming a V-shaped structure. 7. The two kidneys are separate and do not fuse with each other. 7. The two kidneys are distinct.
8. The two ureters are narrow, thin-walled ducts extending behind from the kidneys to the cloaca, where these open into the urodaeum. 8. Same as in Calotes. 8. The ureters open into the urinary bladder. Ureters arise from the hilus of each kidney.
9. There is no pelvis. 9. There is no pelvis. 9. Each ureter is expanded in its kidney into a funnel like pelvis.
10. In males the ureters join at its posterior end with its corresponding vas deferens and both open by a common urino-genital aperture. 10. The ureters do not join with the vas deferens and both open separately into the cloaca. 10. Ureters open separately into the urinary bladder.
11. A thin walled urinary bladder opens on the ventral side of cloaca. 11. Urinary bladder is absent. 11. Urinary bladder is a large, median, pear, shaped, thin walled transparent sac.
12. Urinary bladder communicates with urodaeum thrumph its ventral wall. 12. __ 12. Urinary bladder opens into the urethra or unnogenital canal.
13. Calotes is uricotelic animal Urine consists n.ainly of uric acid. 13. Urine consists mainly of uric acid cotelic animal. 13. Urine consists mainly of urea - ureotelic animal.
14. Urine is excreted in a semi solid state. 14. Urine is excreted in a semisolid state (Bird droppinos). 14. Urine is passed out in a fluid state.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF FROG AND FISH

Published in Zoology
Saturday, 15 July 2017 14:56
Kidneys are the major excretory organs in all vertebrates. Some other organs such as lungs, gills, liver, intestine and skin also remove certain waste materials besides their normal functions. These are also known as the accessory excretory organs. Both shark and frog are anamniotic animals.
 
The kidneys lie dorsal to the coelom and are composed of large number of renal or uriniferous tubules. A uriniferous tubule typically con­sists of three regions - a ciliated peritoneal funnel, a malpighian body and a ciliated convoluted tube. The malpighian body is a two layered cup, the 'Bowman's capsule' containing a mass of capillaries the 'glomerulus'. The convoluted tube opens into a Longitudinal duct which extends backwards and opens into the cloaca. The excretory organs remove the nitrogenous waste products formed during the metabolic activities from time to time. If these products are not removed from the body, they are changed to toxic substances.
 
EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF FISH EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF FROG
1. Paired kidneys are very long and ribbon like. 1. Paired kidneys are short and roughly oval in shape.
2. Each kidney is differentiated into a small non-renal part (genital part) and a long posterior renal part. The two parts exhibit morphological difference. 2. Each kidney possesses genital as well as renal region. But these are not morphologically differentiat­ed.
3. The kidneys are uriniferous 'Opisthonephros' but functional Mesonephros. 3. The kidneys are mesonephros.
4. Some uriniferous tubules retain peritoneal funnel. 4. The peritoneal funnels are absent.
5. The uriniferous tubules have a specialised urea - absorbing seg­ment. 5. The urea-absorbing segment is absent.
6. Uriniferous tubules lead into special tubes - the urinary ducts (ureters). These are distinct from wolffian ducts. 6. Uriniferous tubules lead into the wolffian ducts.
7. Ureters run back ward over the ventral surface of the kidneys. 7. Wolffian ducts leave outer border of kidneys and run backward.
8. Ureters are independent ducts to carry urine from the kidneys to the Urinogenital sinus'. 8. The ureters serve for the passage of genital elements as well as urine. So they are known as urino-genital ducts.Urino genital sinus is absent.
9. The urinary bladder is absent. 9. A large bilobed urinary bladder is present. It opens into the cloaca opposite the openings of the ureters.
10. The urine is hypotonic to blood. 10. The urine is hypertonic to blood.
11. Scoliodon is an ureotelic animal. The endproduct of nitrogen metabolism is urea. A large Quantity of urea is retained in the body as an adaptation to marine life.Excess of urea is excreted chiefly through its gills. 11. Frog is also ureotelic animal. It excretes urine from the cloaca in the form of urea.
Calotes is a cold blooded (poikilothermic) and terrestrial garden lizard. Pigeon is a ward blooded bird adapted for aerial mode of life. Rabbit is warm blooded and a herbivorous mammal which is also known as Oryctolagus. The circulation of blood in vertebrates is of closed type(circulation occurs is blood vessels. The blood vessels which collect blood from different parts of the body are called as veins. The walls of veins are thick and possess valves.Thier lumen is wide. They collect deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body and carry to the heart. The veins are formed by means of capillaries in the respective tissues or organs. The deoxygenated blood is received by the sinus venosus or the right auricle. The portal veins are having capillaries at their both ends. The pulmonary veins possess oxygenated blood.
 
VENOUS SYSTEM OF CALOTES (GARDEN LIZARD) VENOUS SYSTEM OF COLUMBA (PIGEON) VENOUS SYSTEM OF ORYCTOLAGUS (RABBIT)
1. The venous system consists of common pulmonary vein, two precaval and one post caval veins. These collect blood from the various parts of the body. 1. The venous system con­sists of three large veins-teeo precavak and one post caval along with four large pulmonary veins. 1. The venous system con­sists of four distinct divisions. i) System of venae carae ii) Hepatic portal system iii) Pulmonary system iv) Coronary system
2. The two precaval veins collect blood from the anterior part of the body. Each precaval is formed by the union of the internal and external jugular veins from head and the sub clavian vein from the arm. Transverse jugular vein is absent. Azygous vein is also absent. 2. The two precaval veins collect blood from the anterior part of the body. Each precaval vein is formed by the union of Jugular (head), brachial (arm) and pectoral (Pectoral muscfes) veins. Transverse jugular vessel is present in between the jugular veins. Azygous vein is absent. 2. The two precaval veins collect blood from the anterior part of the body. Each precaval vein is formed by the union of the external jugular vein (head) and subclavian vein (fore limb). The right precaval vein receives the azygous (unpaired) and intercostal veins (intercostal muscles and dorsal wall of theory). Left azygous vein is absent.
3. The post canal vein joins the posterior angle of the sinus venous. It forms by the union right and left efferent renal veins and brings blood from the posterior side. 3. The post caval vein is formed by the union of two large itac veins a tittle behind the liver. 3. The post caval vein is a large median vein. It stands at the cauda region (icaudal vein) and runs forward and receives blood in its course. The veins which join the posl caval vein are pairec ilio himbars, iliacs gonadial renal, anc hepatic.
4. The renal portal system collects blood from the posterior side of the body. Caudal vein bifurcates into two pelvic veins which . unite in front and form into the median anterior abdominal vein enters into the liver. Each pelvic vein joined by femoral, sciatic veins of that side. From the pelvic arise the renal portal veins which branch into capillaries in the substance of the kidneys coccygeo-mesenteric vein is absent. 4. Renal portal system is not well developed in pigeon caudal vein bifurcates into right and left renal portal veins (Hypo gastric veins) each of which enters the kidney. The hypogastric vein receives the Internal iliac vein abng with femoral & sciatic veins. At the bifurcation of the caudal vein into the two renal portal veins arise a median 'coccygeome-senteric vein'. It is characteristic of birds. The coccygeo- mesenteric vein joins the hepatic portal vein. 4. Renal portal system is completely absent in Rabbit.
5. The Hepatic portal vein collects blood from the alimentary canal and enters the liver and breaks upto capillaries. 5. The Hepatic portal vein collects bbod from the alimentary canal and emptied into the liver. From the Ever the blood is carried by the post caval vein through hepatic veins. 5. Same as in pigeon.
6. Epi gastric vein is absent. 6. Epi gastric vein returns the blood from the mesenteries and joins the hepatic veins. This vein corresponds to the abdominal vein of the frog. 6. Epi gastric vein is absent.
7. The right and left pulmonary veins bring pure blood from the right and left lungs and united into a common branch. Common pulmonary vein opens into the left auricle. 7. Four large pulmonary veins return blood from the posterior part of the left auricle. 7. A pair of pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from the lungs They unite by a common arch and open into the dorsal wall of the left auricle.
8. The right auricle receives deoxygenated blood through sinus venosus and left auricle possess oxygenated blood. In the partially divided ventricle the blood mixes to some extent. 8. The right side of the heart (right auricle & ventricle) receives de-oxygenated blood and left side folded with (left auricle & ventricle) oxygenated blood. 8. Same as in pigeon. Coronary veins collect deoxygenated blood from the wall of the heart. The coronary sinus opens into the right auricle through an aperture guarded by the Valve of The besius'. The opening is called as the 'formina of the The besius'.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: VENOUS SYSTEM OF FROG AND FISH

Published in Zoology
Saturday, 15 July 2017 02:54
Scoliodon commonly called as shark fish is a poikilothermic (cold blooded) animal. It is cartilaginous fish. Rana (frog) is also poikilothermic and amphibious animal. The circulation of blood in vertebrates is of closed type. The blood vessels which collect blood from various parts of the body are known as veins. The walls of the veins are thin and possess valves. Their lumen is wide. They collect deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body and carry to the heart. The veins are formed by means of capillaries in the respective tissues or organs. The deoxygenated blood first enter into the sinus venosus which is the part of the heart. The portal veins are having capillaries at their both ends. The pulmonary veins possess oxygenated blood.
 
 
FISH (SHARK) - VENOUS SYSTEM FROG (RANA) - VENOUS SYSTEM
1. The venous system comprises a system of large thin walled sinuses which collect blood from the different body organs 1. The venous system comprises of thin walled tubular veins.
2. It consists of the following systems i) Anterior cardinal system ii) Posterior cardinal system iii) Hepatic porta! system iv) Ventral veins vi) Cutanecious system 2. It is divided into i) Anterior system of veins ii) Posterior system of veins iii) Portal systems.
3. The anterior cardinal system and the interior jugular sinuses collect blood from the head region through a number of sinuses. 3. The blood from the head region is collected by a pair of precoval veins. Each precaval vein is formed by External jugular, innominate and subclavian veins.
4. The blood from gills is collected by five pairs of dorsal nutrient sinuses and five pairs of ventral nutrient sinuses. 4.The blood from the lungs is collected by a pair of pulmonary veins.
5. The nutrient sinuses carry deoxygenated blood. 5. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood.
6. The nutrient sinuses empty into anterior cardinal and interior jugular sinuses which inturn open into the ductus cuvieri. Thus the blood finally carried to the sinus venosus. 6. The pulmonary veins open into the left auricle.
7. From the posterior part of the body the blood is collected by i) a pair of posterior cardinal sinuses ii) a pair of lateral abdominal veins iii) a pair of brachial veins. 7. The blood from the posterior part of the body is collected by i) renal portal system and ii) Post caval vein.
8. The renal portal system includes the caudal vein and the renal postal veins & Iliac veins. The blood from the pelvic fins is not carried to the kidneys. 8. The renal portal system consists of veins hind limbs i.e. femoral, sciatic and renal portal veins. The caudal vein is absent.
9. It is absent. 9. A part of the blood from the hind-body is transported to the liyer by an anterior abdominal vein.
10. The blood from the kidneys is collected by renal veins which open into posterior cardinals, opening into the cuvierian sinus. 10. The blood from kidneys is collected by four pairs of renal veins which open into the post caval vein.
11. The brachial veins join the lateral abdominals to form sub clavian veins which open into the ductus cuvieri. 11. The brachial veins open into the precaval veins particularly into the subclavian veins.
12. Three pairs cutaneous veins collect blood from the muscles of skin and open into the cardinal sinuses, lateral abdominals and brachial veins. 12. The cutaneous veins are only one pair which join with muscular & brachial and finally open into the subclavian veins.
13. The venus blood does not enter the sinus venosus directly. But it is collected first by the cuvierian sinus present transversely. 13. The blood collected by the two precavals and one post caval veins directly enters into the sinus venosus.
14. The blood from the parts of the alimentary canal is collected by the Hepatic portal vein and empties into the liver and from there it is transported by Hepatic sinuses into the sinus venosus. 14. The Hepatic portal vein collects blood from the different parts of the alimentary canal and empties into the liver. From the blood is transported into the sinus venosus through the hepatic veins and post caval vein.
Calotes is  called as garden lizard. It is a poikilothermic terrestrial reptile. Columba is commonly called as pigeon, being a bird it is  adapted for aerial mode of life. Oryctolagus (rabbit) is an herbivorous mammal. The blood circulation in these vertebrates is of closed type. The blood vessels which carry blood from the heart to the various parts of the body are known as arteries The walls of the arteries are thick and do not possess valves. The pure blood flows in the arteries. However the arteries which carry blood from the heart to the respiratory organs possess deoxygenated blood. The blood has high pressure in the arteries. Arteries ends by means of blood capillaries in the tissues. The different arteries associated in the circulation of blood form a system which is called as Arterial System.
 
In the above three vertebrates, the arteries arise differently but carry blood from the heart to the various parts of the body.
 
 
Calotes (Garden Lizard) Columba (Pigeon) Oryctolagus (Rabbit)
1. Arterial system consists of a pair of systemic arches and a pulmonary arch. 1. Arterial system consists of two arches-Right sys­temic arch and pulmonary arch. The right systemic arch is called Right Aortic arch. 1. Aiterial system con­sists of two arches, left systemic arch and pulmonary arch. The left systemic arch is known as Left aortic arch
2. The systemic arches and the pulmonary arch arise from the dorsal and ventral parts of the single ventricle. All the three arches are connected by connective tissue. 2. Right aortic arch arises from the left ventricle and pulmonary arch arises from the right ventricle. 2. Left aortic arch airses from the left ventricle and the pulmonary arch arises from the right ventricle.
3. The carotid branch of each side is connected with systemic arch by a vessel, 'Ductus caroticus'. 3. Ductus caroticus is absent. 3. Same is absent.
4. The subclavian arteries arise from the right systemic arch. 4.The right & left carotid and sub clavian arteries originate from the respective innominate arteries, ises. 4. The right carotid and sub clavian arteries arise from the innominate artery. But the left carotid and sub calvian arteries originate directly from the right aortic arch
5. Inter cestal arteries are present. 5. Same are present. 5. Same are present.
6. It is absent. 6. Pectoral artery supplies blood to the muscles of the wings. 6. It is absent.
7. Coeliac artery and anterior mesenteric artery arise separately from the dorsal from the dorsal aorta. 7. Same in pigeon. 7. Same in rabbit.
8. It is absent. 8. It is absent. 8. Phronic artery supplies blood to the muscles of the Diaphragm.
9. A pair of gonadial arteries are present. 9. From the anterior renal arteries the gonadial arteries are formed. 9. Paired Gonadial arteries arise directly from the dorsal arch.
10. Unpaired posterior mesenteric artery is present. 10. Same is present in pigeon. 10. Same is present in rabbit.
11. Three pairs of renal arteries arise from the dorsal aorta. 11. The anterior renal arteries develop from the dorsal aorta. But middle & posterior renal arteries arise from the sciatic artery of each side. 11. A pair of renal arteries arise from the dorsal aorta.
12. Common Iliac ar­teries are formed from the dorsal aor­ta. 12. The internal iliac arteries are formed from the dorsal aorta. 12. Iliolumbar arteries arise from the dorsal aorta.
13. The caudal artery is the terminal portion of the dorsal aorta to the tail. 13. The caudal artery the terminal portion of the dorsal aorta to the tail. 13. The caudal artery is the continuation of the dorsal aorta to the tail.
14. The pulmonary arteries carry blood from right part of the single ventricle to theright and left lungs. 14. Each pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the respective lung for purification. 14. The pulmonary artery which arises from the right ventricle divides into two branches and carry deoxygenated blood to the respective lungs.
15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart. 15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart of bird. 15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart.
Scoliodon ( Shark) is a poikilothermic animal. It is a cartilaginous fish. Frog ( Rana) is a cold blooded and amphibious animal. The circulation of blood is carried by closed vessels. The vessels which supply blood to the various organs of the body are known as arteries as the net work of arteries form the Arterial system. The walls of arteries are thick and lumen is narrow. The blood pressure is high in the arteries. Arteries do not possess valves. The arteries end in capillaries. Arteries deeply seated in the body. Mostly arteries contain oxygenated blood. A few arteries also carry deoxygenated blood to the respiratory organs (either gills or lungs) for purification.
 
 
Scoliodon (Fish) Rana (Frog)
1. The arterial system consists of a ventral aorta, afferent and efferent branchials, dorsal aorta, and its branches and hypobranchials. 1. The arterial system consists of a truncus arteriosus, three pairs of aortic arches and the dorsal aorta & its branches.
2. Five pairs afferent branchial arteries are present. 2. Absent.
3. Efferent branchial system is associated with gill-slits along with the respective arteries. 3. Absent.
4. The arteries to the head are given off from the first pair of epibranchials and by the branches of dorsal aorta carotid labyrinth is absent. 4.The head is supplied blood by the branches. Carotid arteries arising from the truncus arteriosus. Carotid labyrinth is present.
5. Parietal arteries are present. 5. Parietal arteries are absent.
6. Hypobranchial plexus is present. 6. It is absent.
7. Dorsal aorta is formed by the union of epibranchial arteries of both the right and left sides. 7. The second branches of turncus, the systemic arches of the left and right sides unite to form the dorsal aorta.
8. Subclavian arteries arise from the dorsal aorta. 8. Sub clavian artery arises from each systemic arch.
9. Absent. 9. Occipito-vertebral artery arises from the systemic arch of each side.
10. Coeliaco-mesenteric artery aris­es from behind the union of the four pairs of epibranchials. 10. Coeliaco-mesenteric artery arises from the junction of the two system¬ic arches.
11. Just below the Coeliaco-mesen­teric artery, lienogastric artery arises. 11. Lie no gastric artery is absent.
12. The parietal artery gives off four pairs renal arteries. 12. Four pairs of renal arteries arise directly from the dorsal aorta.
13. Gonadial (Spermatic or ovari­an) artery arises from the lieno ­gastric artery. 13. Gonadial arteries arise directly from the first pair of renal arteries.
14. Dorsal aorta terminates into caudal artery. 14. C-iudal artery is absent.
15. Pulmo cutaneous arch is absent. 15. The third branch of truncus is the pulmo-cutaneous arch which is divided into pulmonary and cutanecious arteries.
 
The heart of fish possess venous blood and blood passes through the heart only once in a complete circuit. But in frog the heart receives both oxygenated and venous blood and the circulation is bi circuit.
 
The fish is an aquatic animal and possesses five pairs of gills. The blood is supplied by pairs of afferent bronchial arteries and is collected by nine pairs of efferent bronchial arteries. In frog however, the respiratory organs are a pair of lungs (skin & buccal cavity also help in respiration) which are supplied by a pair of pulmonary arteries.
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