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COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: HEART STRUCTURE OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

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Published in Zoology
Thursday, 13 July 2017 20:25
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CALOTES: HEART (DORSAL VIEW) CALOTES: HEART (DORSAL VIEW)
Calotes is a poikilothermic terrestrial lizard. Columba is pigeon adapted for aerial mode of life. Oryctolagus is an herbivorous mammal.
 
Both pigeon and Rabbit are warm blooded animals. Heart, arteries, veins and blood capillaries are included in the circulatory system. The blood circulation is controlled by an important organ Heart. Normally the blood flows in the closed vessels. So blood circulation is of closed type in verte­brates. The heart possesses auricles and ventricles. The pericardium is at­tached to the heart by gubernaculum cordis'.
 
The number of chambers of heart varies from calotes and other two vertebrates (Pigeon & Rabbit). The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmi­cally. This is called heart beat.
 
The detailed comparison of the heart of the above three animals is mentioned below.
 
Calotes (Lizard) Columba (Pigeon) Oryctolagus (Rabbit)
1. Heart is situated mid ventrally in the an­terior part of the body cavity in the pleuro peritoneal cavity be­hind the sternum. 1. Same way the heart is located. 1. Heart is situated in the thoracic cavity, between the lungs of two sides (Mediastinum). It is present slightly towards the left side.
2. Heart is comparatively smaller in size. 2. Heart is comparatively larger in size. 2. Heart is comparatively larger in size.
3. It is enclosed by double walled pericardium. 3. It is also enclosed in the double walled pericardium. 3. Same.
4. Heart includes a dorsal sinusvenusus aright auricle, a left auricle and a single incom-pletely divided ventricle. 4. Heart is four chambered, sinus venosus is absent in the adult. Completed divided two auricles and two ventricles by inter auricular septum and inter ventricular septum respectively. 4. Same as in columba.
5. The three vena cavae or two precavals and a post caval vein open into the sinus venosus. 5. The three vena cavae or two precavals and a post caval empty the blood directly into the right auricle. 5. Same as in pigeon.
6. The left auricle receives two pulmonary veins from the lungs. 6. The left auricle receives four pulmonary veins from the lungs. 6. Left auricle receives two pulmonary veins from the lungs.
7. The right auricle pos­sess sinu auricular aperture guarded by valve. 7. Absent. 7. Absent.
8. The two auricles are completely separated by inter auricular sep­tum. But the inter ven­tricular septum in the ventricle is incomplete. Hence oxygenated and deoxygenated types of blood is mixed to some extent in the ventricle. 8. Complete inter auricular and inter ventricular septa are present. There is no possibility of mixing the oxygenated blood with deoxygenated blood. 8. Same as in pigeon.
9. The heart of lizard is in a transitional stage approcarhing the double circuit stage But it has not reached it completely due to incomplete division of the encircle. 9. The heart is a double circuit heart because of complete division of ventricle into right and left chambers. 9. Same as in pigeon.
10. The auriculo ventricular aperture is guarded by two flap like semilumar valves. 10. The right auriculo ventricular aperture is guarded by two large muscular flap like valve and the left by three valves. 10. The right auriculo-uentricular aperture is guarded by tricuspid valve and the left by bicuspid valve (mytral valve).

11. There are three aortic arches arising from the ventricle.

  1. Pulmonary trunk (ventral most)
  2. Right systemic trunk (arise from left side of ventricle)

11. Only two aortic arches originate from the ventricles.

  1. Pulmonary trunk (from right ventricle)
  2. Right systemic trunk (from left ventricle)

i.e. Right aortic arch is characteristic of birds.

11. Only two aortic arches arise from the ventricles.

  1. Pulmonary arch (right ventricle)
  2. Left systemic aorta (Left aortic arch from the left ventricle). Right aortic arch is absent.
12. Ductus caroticus is present (connection between carotid & systemic arches) 12. Absent 12. Absent
13. Lizard's heart presents a transitional heart, since it approaches the double circuit heart but has not yet completely attained. So the heart is less efficient. 13. Avian heart has at tained maximum com olexity and is a double circuit heart, i.e. venous blood is com pletely separated frorr oxygenated blood. 13. Same as in Pigeon.
14. Absent. 14. Sinu-Auricular Node and Auriculo ventricular node are present. 14. SA - node and A.V. node are present. In addition bundle of His muscles are also develop.

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