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Anatomy — It is a branch of biology which deals with the study of internal structure of an organism as revealed by dissection. 
Arthrology — Study of joints.
Agriology — Study of customs of primitive man.
Aphidology — Study of aphids (plant lice).
Aerobiology — Study of flying organisms in relation with other flying objects.
Agronomy — The management of farms and the science of crop production is called agronomy.
Anthropology — The science of man and mankind including his physical and mental constitution, cultural development and social conditions of present and past is called anthropology.
Anthology — It is a branch of biology study of flowers.
Agrostology — It is the study of grasses.
Acarology — Study of order acarina comprising ticks and mites.
Acrology — Study of ticks and mites is called acrology.
Aerobiology — Study of air borne organisms and structures such as spores etc. and their distribution.
Agriology — It is the comparative study of tribal customs.
Agrobiology — It is the quantitative science of plant life and plant nutrition.
Agrology — It is the soil sciecne dealing with production of crops.
Andrology — It is the study of male reproductive organs.
Araneology — It is the study of spiders.
Arboriculture — Cultivation of trees and shrubs is called arboriculture.
Agriculture — It deals with the cultivation of crops and the improved methods of farming.
Actinobiology — Study of radiation effect on living organisms.
Angiology — It is a biology branch Study of blood vessels.
Bionformatics — It is branch of science concerned with development and application of computing system and technology in order to make novel observation about biological processes.
Biotechnology — It is the controlled use of biological agents such as micro-organisms or cellular components for beneficial use.
Breeding biology — Breeding is art and science of changing and improving the heredity of plant and animals.
Biochemistry — Study of chemical aspect of living organims is termed biochemistry.
Bacteriology — Study of bacteria.
Batrachology — It is the study of frog.
Biocimatology — The study of climatic effects on biological processes and organisms.
Biometrology — Study of effects of atmospheric changes on living organisms.
Bionics — It is study of problem solving by humans, animals and its technical application.
Bacteriology — It is the study of bacteria.
Bryology — It is the study of bryophytes. Computational biology. Systematic development, application and validation of computational hardware solution for building simulation models of bilogical systems.
Cytology — It deals with the study of structure and functions of cell.
Cell Biology — The study of structure, functions, reproduction, energy dynamics, transport mechanism and life history of cell is called cell biology.
Cryobiology — It is the study of effect of low temperature on living organisms.
Chirology — It deals with communication system with deaf and mute by sign languages.
Chromatology — Study of pigments.
Ctetology — Study of acquired characters of organisms.
Chromatology — It is the science of colours.
Chronobiology — Study of biology of cyclic physiological phenomena.
Cosmology — Sciecne of structure and evolution of universe.
Cnidology — Study of coelenterates or Cnidarians Characteristics
Conchology — Study of shells.
Chondrology — Study of cartilage.
Craniology — Study of skull.
Cardiology — Study of heart.
Dysteleology — It is the study of appearance of vestigial organs due to evolution.
Dendrology — It is the study of shrubs and trees.
Developmental Biology — It deals with the study of processes by which organisms undergo progressive and orderly changes in structure as well as physiology during their entire life cycle.
Dermatology — Study of skin.
Developmental Morphology — It deals with the developmental aspects of plants.
Desmology — Study of structures and anatomy of ligaments.
Evolution — It is the branch of biology which deals with the study of descent of present day complex living organims (plants and animals) from the living forms of the past.
Embryology — It deals with the study of the stages of an organism that occur immediately after fertilization.
Ecology — It is the study of inter—relationship between living organisms and their environment.
Ethology — Study of animal behaviour and conditions of animals
Eugenics — It is the science dealing with the improvement of human race through application of the laws of heredity
Entomology — Study of insects.
Exobiology — The study of kind of life that may exist in outer space is called exobiology
Etiology — It is the study of causes of diseases.
Ecobiology — Study of adapations in relation to habitat.
Ecophysiology — Physiological adaptations in response to environment.
Epigenetics — It is the study of mechanisms by which genes and, their products bring about phenotypic expression.
Ethnobotany — It is the relationship between primitive humans and plants.
Ethnology — It is science dealing with different races of man kind.
Economic Botany — It deals with the study of various uses of plants and their products.
Environmental management — It is the assessment of environment, finding out the ways and means for remedy of environmental problems and for conservation of biodiversity so as to maintain the balance in nature. Forensic science — Application of science for identification of various facts about blood groups, hair, poisons, narcotics, finger prints, DNA finger printing for solving civilian and criminal cases.
Food technology — Study of processing and preservation of food is called food technology.
Forestry or silviculture — It deals with the development of forests and the utilization of their products.
Gynaecology — Study of female reproductive organs.
Gerontology — It is a branch of developmental biology which deals with the study of ageing.
Genetics — It is the study of genes heredity and variations.
Genecology — Study of genetical make up of species or population in relation to habitat.
Genetic engineering — The methods of artificial synthesis dna
Horticulture — It deals with the study of plants cultivated in gardens and orchards.
Hypnology — Science dealing with sleep including the one from hypnosis.
Helminthology — Study of parasitic worms.
Herpetology — Study of reptiles.
Hepatology — Study of liver.
Haematology — Study of blood.
Histology — The study of the structure and chemical composition of animal and plant tissue as related to the function.
heredity — It is the study of inheritance of characters from parents to offspring.
Ichthyology — Study of fishes or study of fishes and amphibians. 
Internal Morphology — It deals with the internal structure of plant parts and also called anatomy.
Ichnology — It is a branch of paleontology which deals with fossil foot prints.
Kalology — Study of human beauty.
Lepidepteriology — Study of butterflies and moths.
Limnology — Study of fresh water ecology.
Leprology — It is the study of leprosy its cause and cure.
Limnobiology — Its the study of fresh water.
Limnology — Study of fresh water ecology/study of snails.
Lichenology — It is the study of lichens.
Molecular Biology — Study of living organisms at the molecular level.
Morphology — It deals with the study of form and structure of animals.
Mammology — Study of mammals
Microbiology — Study of microscopic organisms.
Malariology — Study of malaria.
Myremecology — Study of ants is termed myremecology.
Malacology — Study of molluscs.
Myology (Sarcology) — Study of muscles.
Mastology — Study of breast including teats is called mastology.
Mycology — It is the study of fungi.
Neinatology — Study of nematodes (round worms).
Nephrology — Study of kidney.
Neonatalogy — It is science of study of new borns up to twenty eight days in humans.
Neurology — Study of nervous system.
Nidology — Study of nests of birds.
Ornithology — Study of birds.
Ophthalmology — Study of eyes.
Osteology — Study of bones
Organocology — Study of development of organs under embryology.
Olericulture — Its the branch of agriculture dealing with vegetables
Palaeozoology — It is the study of animal fossils.
Phenology — Study of organisms as affected by seasonal climates e.g. bird migration, opening of flowers etc.
Physiology — Study of functions of various parts of body is called physiology.
Parasitology — Study of parasites.
Protozoology — Study of unicellular organisms. i.e.Protozoa Characters 
Parazoology — Study of sponges.
Pathology — Nature, symptoms, causes, effects, prevention and suggestive cure of disease is called pathology.
Plant physiology — It is the study of various functional aspects or life processes of the plants.
Plant taxonomy — It is the study of identification, nomenclature and classification of plants.
Palaeobotany — It is the study of fossils of prehistoric plants.
Plant ecology — The study of relationship of plants with the environment is termed plant ecology.
Plant geography — The study of distribution of plants over the surface of earth.
Phycology — It is the study of algae.
Plant pathology — It is the study of plant diseases, their causes, symptoms and methods of control.
Pteridology — It is the study of pteridophytes.
Palynology — It is the study of pollen grains and sperms.
Pomology — It is the study of fruits.
Protology — It is the study of hind gut including rectum and anus.
Physiotherapy — Treatment of defects by physical remedies is called physiotherapy.
Protistology — It is the study of protists.
Phenology — Study of periodicity phenomenon of organisms e.g. Bird Migration.
Pharmacology — It is the study of medicine or drug plants.
Plant breeding — It is the study of genetics in relation to selective crossing and reproduction between different plants.
Plant agronomy — It is the science of soil management and production of crops.
Pharmacognsy — It is the scientific study of structural, physical, chemical and sensory characters of plants, cultivation, collection and other particulars relating to their uses.
Pharmacology — Study of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms.
Phrenology — Study of mental faculties of brain including feelings.
Plant Morphology — Study of form and structure of plant organ is called morphology.
Rhinology — Study of nose and olfactory organs.
Serology — Study of serum ; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood.
Splanchnology — Study of visceral cavity and its organs.
Soil Science — The study of soil involving its structure, type and dynamics is called soil science.
Sedimentology — Study of rocks and fossils.
Space biology — It is the study of problem of survival living organisms in outer space.
Serpentology (Ophiology) — Study of snakes.
Saurology — Study of lizards.
Sitology — Science of food, diet and nutrition.
Stomatology — It is the study of foregut.
Speciology — Study of species.
Sarcology — It is branch of anatomy which deals with fleshy parts of body.
Spelaeology — Study of caves and cave life.
Teratology — lt is a branch of developmental biology which deals with the study of developmental abnormalities during embryonic stages.
Taxonomy — It deals with the principles of identification, nomenclature and classification of the animals.
Torentology — It is the study of diseases of embryo.
Taphonomy — It deals with the study of conditions conducive to fossilization of organisms in the plant.
Tricology — Study of hairs is called trichology.
Trophology — Study of nutrition is called tropology.
Toxicology — Study of narcotic effect on animals.
Therapeutics — Study of healing.
Tectology — It is the study of structural organization animals.
Traumatology — Study of injuries and wounds.
Urology — Study of excretory system.
Virology — It is the study of viruses.
Xenology — It is the study of hosts in relation to life history of parasites.
Zoogeography — It is the study of distribution of animals in different geographic regions.
Zoopathology — Study of diseases of animals.
Zoophytology — Study of drifting organisms such as diatoms.
Zymology — Study of fermentation is called zymology.
Zootechny — Science of breeding and domesticating animals.
Zoonosology — it is the study of handicapped animals.
Zoology — Study of Animals

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Last modified on Friday, 21 April 2017 01:03

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  • Telomere Indicator of Physiological Age
    Have you ever wondered, what is your physiological age? Is it more or less than your chronological age? Physiological age determines a person’s health condition. Are we able to determine physiological age? You would think the answer is NO. but it can be done by determining telomere’s length. “Telomere is a repetitive nucleotide sequence (having no meaningful information) at each end of chromosome to protect DNA from deterioration and or from fusion with other chromosomes.” This sequence is about 3000-15000 base pairs in length. In vertebrates this repeated sequence is TTAGGG.
    Significance of Telomeres
    Cells divide and increase their number, DNA duplication also occurs. Enzymes involved in this duplication process, can’t continue duplication all the way to the end so some part of DNA is lost and chromosome is shortened. This lost part is some base pairs of telomere. Somatic cells lose about 50-100 nucleotides on each cell division. In this way, telomeres, having no meaningful information, act as CAPS preventing the important information (DNA) from deterioration and preserve the critical information. Telomeres are never tied to each other which allows chromosomes to remain segregate. Without telomeres, chromosomes would fuse with each other. Telomere Shortening Telomeres shorten because of the two major factors:
    1. End replication problem in eukaryotes accounts for loss of 20 base pairs per cell division.
    2. Oxidative stress accounts for loss of 50-100 base pairs per cell division.
    Figure 827.1
    Oxidative stress in the body depends on lifestyle factors. Smoking, poor diet and stress can cause increase in oxidative stress. With each cell division telomeres shorten, so there are limited number of divisions that a cell can undergo, this limit is called Hayflick Limit. This is to prevent the loss of vital DNA information and to prevent production of abnormal cells. When a cell reaches this limit it undergoes apoptosis that is a programmed cell death. Telomere Lengthening to reverse telomere shortening, there is an enzyme named Telomerase that adds telomere sequence nucleotides and replenish the lost telomere nucleotides. Telomerase activity is not present in all cells. It is almost absent in somatic cells including; lung, liver, kidney cells, adult tissues, cardiac and skeletal muscles etc. In the presence of telomerase enzyme, a cell can divide to unlimited extent without ageing giving rise to tumors. That’s why it is found only in some cells in considerable concentration including germline cells and stem cells. These cells don’t show signs of ageing.
    Figure 827.3
    Relation between Telomere’s Shortening and Ageing
    Figure 827.2It is still controversial that whether telomere shortening is a reason of ageing or is a sign of ageing just like grey hair. Whatever it is, the thing is, it determines your physiological age because ageing cells mean an ageing body. Telomere shortening is related with poor lifestyle. People who are active and have a healthy lifestyle have the same telomere length as someone 10 years younger than them has. Depression causes increase in oxidative stress in the body so the higher the stress, the shorter the telomere is Link between Telomeres and Cancer “Cancer in general is defined as an uncontrollable rapid growth of cells.”
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    These cells have active telomerase enzyme, which doesn’t let the telomere to shorten, so no Hayflick limit reaches and cell continues to divide. This is the reason why telomerase is not used as an anti-ageing medicine because it has potential to turn normal body cells into cancerous cells. Without telomerase activity cancer cells activity would stop, which is an under research treatment for cancer. However, drugs inhibiting telomerase activity, can interfere with normal functioning of cells that require telomerase. In healthy female breast there is a portion of cells named, luminal progenitors, with critically short telomere length. In these cells telomerase becomes active causing these cells to turn into cancer cells on higher activity. To tackle breast cancer, use of telomerase inhibiting drugs should be practiced. Telomere biology is very important for understanding cancer biology and scientists are working hard on it.
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    Lizard, bird and rabbit all these three animals come under the group amniota. The taking away of nitrogenous un wanted waste products from the body is called excretion. If excretion takes place not  properly in the body they become poisonous. Vertebrates main excretory organs are called as kidneys. Skin, gills, lungs, liver and intestine are also acts as accessory excretory organs.
    The kidneys are made up with numerous uriniferous tubules.kidneys are located in dorsal side of coelom.
    A typical uriniferous tubule having three parts.
    1. Ciliated peritoneal funnel
    2. Malpighian body
    3. Ciliated convoluted tube
    1. Paired kidneys are dark red and irregular in shape. These are flattened organs. 1. Kidneys are dark red and some what rectangular and flattened organs. 1. Kidneys are dark red and bean shaped organs.
    2. Kidneys are located in the posterior region of the abdominal cavity and attached to the dorsal wall by a fold of peritoneum. 2. Kidneys are situated in the anterior part of the abdomen. 2. Kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdominal cavity.
    3. Right and left kidneys are opposite to each other. 3. Same as in calotes. 3. The two kidneys are distinct. The right kidney lies much ahead than the left kidney.
    4. They are attached to the dorsal muscles. 4. They are fitted in the hollows of the pelvic girdle. 4. Same as in calotes.
    5. They are very near to the median line kidneys are Metanephros type. 5. They are a little away from the median line. Kidneys are Meta nephros type. 5. They are well away from the median line. Kidneys are meta ne phros type.
    6. Each kidney has two lobes Anterior lobe is broad and posterior lobe is broad Hilus is absent. 6. Each kidney has three lobes They are anterior, median and posterior lobes. Hilus is absent. 6. Each kidney is a single-lobed structure. Inner side of the kidney has a concave depression is known as the 'hilus'.
    7. The two kidneys are united posteriorly forming a V-shaped structure. 7. The two kidneys are separate and do not fuse with each other. 7. The two kidneys are distinct.
    8. The two ureters are narrow, thin-walled ducts extending behind from the kidneys to the cloaca, where these open into the urodaeum. 8. Same as in Calotes. 8. The ureters open into the urinary bladder. Ureters arise from the hilus of each kidney.
    9. There is no pelvis. 9. There is no pelvis. 9. Each ureter is expanded in its kidney into a funnel like pelvis.
    10. In males the ureters join at its posterior end with its corresponding vas deferens and both open by a common urino-genital aperture. 10. The ureters do not join with the vas deferens and both open separately into the cloaca. 10. Ureters open separately into the urinary bladder.
    11. A thin walled urinary bladder opens on the ventral side of cloaca. 11. Urinary bladder is absent. 11. Urinary bladder is a large, median, pear, shaped, thin walled transparent sac.
    12. Urinary bladder communicates with urodaeum thrumph its ventral wall. 12. __ 12. Urinary bladder opens into the urethra or unnogenital canal.
    13. Calotes is uricotelic animal Urine consists n.ainly of uric acid. 13. Urine consists mainly of uric acid cotelic animal. 13. Urine consists mainly of urea - ureotelic animal.
    14. Urine is excreted in a semi solid state. 14. Urine is excreted in a semisolid state (Bird droppinos). 14. Urine is passed out in a fluid state.
    Kidneys are the major excretory organs in all vertebrates. Some other organs such as lungs, gills, liver, intestine and skin also remove certain waste materials besides their normal functions. These are also known as the accessory excretory organs. Both shark and frog are anamniotic animals.
    The kidneys lie dorsal to the coelom and are composed of large number of renal or uriniferous tubules. A uriniferous tubule typically con­sists of three regions - a ciliated peritoneal funnel, a malpighian body and a ciliated convoluted tube. The malpighian body is a two layered cup, the 'Bowman's capsule' containing a mass of capillaries the 'glomerulus'. The convoluted tube opens into a Longitudinal duct which extends backwards and opens into the cloaca. The excretory organs remove the nitrogenous waste products formed during the metabolic activities from time to time. If these products are not removed from the body, they are changed to toxic substances.
    1. Paired kidneys are very long and ribbon like. 1. Paired kidneys are short and roughly oval in shape.
    2. Each kidney is differentiated into a small non-renal part (genital part) and a long posterior renal part. The two parts exhibit morphological difference. 2. Each kidney possesses genital as well as renal region. But these are not morphologically differentiat­ed.
    3. The kidneys are uriniferous 'Opisthonephros' but functional Mesonephros. 3. The kidneys are mesonephros.
    4. Some uriniferous tubules retain peritoneal funnel. 4. The peritoneal funnels are absent.
    5. The uriniferous tubules have a specialised urea - absorbing seg­ment. 5. The urea-absorbing segment is absent.
    6. Uriniferous tubules lead into special tubes - the urinary ducts (ureters). These are distinct from wolffian ducts. 6. Uriniferous tubules lead into the wolffian ducts.
    7. Ureters run back ward over the ventral surface of the kidneys. 7. Wolffian ducts leave outer border of kidneys and run backward.
    8. Ureters are independent ducts to carry urine from the kidneys to the Urinogenital sinus'. 8. The ureters serve for the passage of genital elements as well as urine. So they are known as urino-genital ducts.Urino genital sinus is absent.
    9. The urinary bladder is absent. 9. A large bilobed urinary bladder is present. It opens into the cloaca opposite the openings of the ureters.
    10. The urine is hypotonic to blood. 10. The urine is hypertonic to blood.
    11. Scoliodon is an ureotelic animal. The endproduct of nitrogen metabolism is urea. A large Quantity of urea is retained in the body as an adaptation to marine life.Excess of urea is excreted chiefly through its gills. 11. Frog is also ureotelic animal. It excretes urine from the cloaca in the form of urea.

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