MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

Written by Wednesday, 30 August 2017 23:26
Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1.   Figure 846.1 Microscopic examinations carried out on fecal sample   Collection of Specimen for Parasites   A random…

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

Written by Wednesday, 30 August 2017 01:21
Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1):   Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH  …

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

Written by Monday, 28 August 2017 01:46
Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function   Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water.   1. Glycosuria:…

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

Written by Sunday, 27 August 2017 13:15
Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of glomerular damage in diabetes mellitus is occurrence of microalbuminuria (albuminuria in the range of 30…

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

Written by Sunday, 27 August 2017 01:43
Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Although convenient, they are insensitive markers of glomerular function.   Blood Urea Nitrogen…
One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a person from the following formula (Cockcroft and Gault):     Creatinine clearance in ml/min =…
Glomerular filtration rate refers to the rate in ml/min at which a substance is cleared from the circulation by the glomeruli. The ability of the glomeruli to filter a substance…
Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous renal biopsy was first performed by Alwall in 1944. In renal disease, renal biopsy is…

ROLE OF LABORATORY TESTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

Written by Thursday, 17 August 2017 21:35
In DM, applications of laboratory tests are as follows:   Diagnosis of DM Screening of DM Assessment of glycemic control Assessment of associated long-term risks Management of acute metabolic complications.…

PREGNANCY TESTS

Written by Wednesday, 16 August 2017 12:56
Pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in serum or urine. Although pregnancy is the most common reason for ordering the test for hCG, measurement of hCG is also indicated…
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