TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

Written by Thursday, 28 September 2017 14:23
Total serum thyroxine includes both free and protein-bound thyroxine and is usually measured by competitive immunoassay. Normal level in adults is 5.0-12.0 μg/dl.   Test for total thyroxine or free…

DISORDERS OF THYROID

Written by Thursday, 28 September 2017 01:34
Box 863.1 Terminology in thyroid disorders Primary hyper-/hypothyroidism: Increased or decreased function of thyroid gland due to disease of thyroid itself and not due to increased or decreased levels of…

FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Written by Friday, 22 September 2017 13:37
The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process of oogenesis. The ova are released by the process of ovulation in a cyclical manner…

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Written by Friday, 22 September 2017 00:03
The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that produce spermatozoa and secrete testosterone), a paired system of ducts comprising of epididymis, vasa deferentia,…

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Written by Friday, 08 September 2017 01:21
Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is the upper part surrounding the entrance of the esophagus and is lined by the mucus-secreting…

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:53
Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac…

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:53
Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer).Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion…

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:18
In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e.…

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Tuesday, 05 September 2017 23:51
To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion.   Basal acid…

Histopathology

Written by Monday, 04 September 2017 17:55
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia"study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist,…
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