FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Written by Friday, 22 September 2017 13:37
The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process of oogenesis. The ova are released by the process of ovulation in a cyclical manner…

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Written by Friday, 22 September 2017 00:03
The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that produce spermatozoa and secrete testosterone), a paired system of ducts comprising of epididymis, vasa deferentia,…

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Written by Friday, 08 September 2017 01:21
Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is the upper part surrounding the entrance of the esophagus and is lined by the mucus-secreting…

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:53
Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac…

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:53
Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer).Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion…

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:18
In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e.…

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Written by Tuesday, 05 September 2017 23:51
To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion.   Basal acid…

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

Written by Wednesday, 30 August 2017 23:26
Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1.   Figure 846.1 Microscopic examinations carried out on fecal sample   Collection of Specimen for Parasites   A random…

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

Written by Wednesday, 30 August 2017 01:21
Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1):   Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH  …

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

Written by Monday, 28 August 2017 01:46
Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function   Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water.   1. Glycosuria:…
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