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Informative (9)

Prickly Heat Rash: Cause, Symptoms and Treatment

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Published in Informative
Sunday, 02 July 2017 10:39
Prickly heat usually clears up on its own within a few days. However, in serious cases heat rash can interfere with the body's heat-regulating mechanism and cause heat exhaustion.
Heatstroke is a more serious condition when the body can no longer cool itself. This is a medical emergency.
What causes prickly heat rash?
Heat rash begins with excessive perspiration, usually in a hot, humid environment. The perspiration makes it easier for dead skin cells and bacteria on the skin to block the sweat glands, forming a barrier and trapping sweat beneath the skin, where it builds up, causing the characteristic bumps. As the bumps burst and sweat is released, there may be a prickly, or stinging sensation that gives this condition its name.

What are the symptoms of heat rash?
Small, itchy red bumps on the skin are the symptoms of heat rash. The rash may feel prickly, stinging or burning.
Seek medical advice if:
  • Heat rash does not go away on its own within a few days.
  • You develop an infection in an area where you recently had heat rash.
What are the treatments for heat rash?
In most cases, heat rash will clear up on its own in a few days if the affected area is kept cool and dry. Avoid excessive heat and humidity and cool off with a fan, take a cool shower or bath and let your skin air dry, or if you have air-conditioning, use this to cool yourself. Once the skin is cool and dry again, don’t use any type of oil-based product, which might block your sweat glands. Calamine lotion and/or hydrocortisone cream can relieve itching and irritation.
If your prickly heat does not go away within a few days, or if you develop an infection where the bumps have burst, you may need medication, so seek medical advice.

How can I prevent heat rash?
To prevent heat rash, avoid situations that can lead to excessive sweating, such as hot, humid environments and strenuous physical activity. In hot weather, use fans and cool showers and baths to stay cool, or air conditioning if available; dry your skin thoroughly; and wear lightweight, loose-fitting clothes ideally made from cotton.
  • Allen’s LawAllen
  • Artificial ParthenogenesisLoeb
  • Axial Gradient theoryChild
  • Bergman’s RuleBergman
  • Biogenetic LawEarnst Haeckel (1868)
  • Biological Species ConceptEarnst Mayer
  • Biogenesis TheoryDeveloped by F. Redi
  • Chromosomal Theory of InheritanceSutton and Boveri
  • Theory of natural selectionCharles Darwin


Written by
Published in Informative
Monday, 26 June 2017 18:39

Amino acid sequence of protein (insulin)

Anaerobic release of energy
L-Pasteur (1878)


Pure culture of Bacteria
Lister J.

Towrt and De Herelle (1915)

Blood Capillaries
Marcello Malpighi

Blood Groups
Karl Landsteiner

Blood Circulation
William Harvey

E.R. Dubois


Saffermann and Morris

First description of cell (RBC)
Jan Swammerdam (1658)

Robert Hooke (1665)

Living cell
A.V. Leeuwenhoek

Cell Theory
Schleiden and Schwann

Van Benden

Van Benden


Golgi bodies
Cammileo Golgi

Haeckel (1866)


Kolliker (1880)

Robertis and Francis

Paleviz et. al (1975)

Robert Brown



Ribosomes (Animal cell)

Pernes (1953)

Astral rays and spindle

Endoplasmic reticulum

Central Dogma
F.H.C. Crick (1918)

Coenzyme A
C. Lipmann

Chlorophyll structure
Willstartter and Fisher


C.A. Macmunn (1886)

Citric Acid cycle
Hans A. Krebs

Double Helical Structure of DNA
Watson and Crick

Biological Synthesis of DNA with template
A. Kornberg.

biological synthesis of DNA without template
H.G. Khorona


Embryo culture

Extra embryonic membranes
Von Baer

Fertilization in plants
E. Strasburger

Double fertilization

Go phase

Gaseous exchange in blood
Ludwig (1872)

Genetic defects in human
Sir Archibald Garrod

Giant Salivary gland chromosomes
Balbiani (1881)

Beylis and Starling


Issacs and Linderman

Insulin use for treatment of diabetics

G. Mendel

Rediscoverer of Mendelism
Correns, Hugo de Vries and Tschmark

W. His


W. Flemming

Farmer and Moore

Hugo de Vries

Nucleic acid
Meishcher called it ‘Nuclein’

Ovum (Mammalian)
Karl E. Von Baer

Omnis cellula e cellula
R. Virchow

Edward and Lewis


Alexander Flemming


Garner and Allard

Park and Bigginis (1960)

Quiescent centre

Protoplasm Physical basis of life

Salmon Waksman

Techniques Chromatograph
M. Tswett

Tissue culture
A. Carrel

Isotopic tracing
G. Havesy

Measuring gaseous exchange manometry
O. Warburg

Locating DNA in cell
A. Feulgen

T. Svedberg

Avena curvature test

Teminism (Reverse Transcription)

Synthesis of urea

D. Iwanovsky

Obtained crystals of virus


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Published in Informative
Sunday, 25 June 2017 17:05

Antileprosy day
30th Jan

International Women day
8th March

World Handicaps day
15th March

World Forest day
21st March

World Tuberculosis day
26th March

World Health day
7th April

World Earth day
22nd April

International Sun day (Non-conventional Energy sources day)
3rd May

World Red Cross day
8th May

World No Tobacco Day
31st May

World Environment day
5th June

World Population Day
11th July

Hiroshima and Nagasaki Day
6th Aug

Malaria day (mosquito day)
20th Aug

Blood Donation Day
1st Oct

World Animal Day
3rd Oct

World habitat Day
4th Oct

World Food Day
16th Oct

World Diabetes Day
14 Nov

World AIDS Day
1st Dec

National Pollution Prevention Day
2nd Dec

World conservation Day
3rd Dec

International Day for Biological Diversity
29th Dec


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Published in Informative
Friday, 23 June 2017 19:25
  • Abdul Qadir Khan Research Laboratories
  • Energy Conservation Cell (ENERCON), Islamabad
  • Drainage Research Institute of Pakistan (DRIP), Hyderabad
  • Forestry Institute, Peshawar
  • Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Tarbella
  • Geological Survey of Pakistan, Rawalpindi
  • Irrigation, Drainage, and Flood Control Research Council, Islamabad
  • National Center for Technology Transfer (NCTT), Islamabad
  • National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad
  • Nuclear Institute of Agricultural Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad
  • Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Islamabad
  • Pakistan Arts Council
  • Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Islamabad
  • Pakistan Council of Industrial and Scientific Research (PCSIR)
  • Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF), Islamabad
  • Pakistan Health Research Council (PHRC), Islamabad
  • Silicon Institute of Technology, Islamabad
  • Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Council (SUPPARCO), Karachi

H. Gobind Khorana - Biographical

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Published in Informative
Sunday, 12 March 2017 13:08

Har Gobind Khorana was born of Hindu parents in Raipur, a little village in Punjab, which is now part of eastern Pakistan. The correct date of his birth is not known; that shown in documents is January 9th, 1922. He is the youngest of a family of one daughter and four sons. His father was a «patwari», a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian system of government. Although poor, his father was dedicated to educating his children and they were practically the only literate family in the village inhabited by about 100 people.

Har Gobind Khorana attended D.A.V. High School in Multan (now West Punjab); Ratan Lal, one of his teachers, influenced him greatly during that period. Later, he studied at the Punjab University in Lahore where he obtained an M. Sc. degree. Mahan Singh, a great teacher and accurate experimentalist, was his supervisor.

Khorana lived in India until 1945, when the award of a Government of India Fellowship made it possible for him to go to England and he studied for a Ph. D. degree at the University of Liverpool. Roger J. S. Beer supervised his research, and, in addition, looked after him diligently. It was the introduction of Khorana to Western civilization and culture.

Khorana spent a postdoctoral year (1948-1949) at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Zurich with Professor Vladimir Prelog. The association with Professor Prelog molded immeasurably his thought and philosophy towards science, work, and effort.

After a brief period in India in the fall of 1949, Khorana returned to England where he obtained a fellowship to work with Dr. (now Professor) G. W. Kenner and Professor (now Lord) A. R. Todd. He stayed in Cambridge from 1950 till 1952. Again, this stay proved to be of decisive value to Khorana. Interest in both proteins and nucleic acids took root at that time.

A job offer in 1952 from Dr. Gordon M. Shrum of British Columbia (now Chancellor of Simon Fraser University, British Columbia) took him to Vancouver. The British Columbia Research Council offered at that time very little by way of facilities, but there was «all the freedom in the world», to use Dr. Shrum's words, to do what the researcher liked to do. During the following years, with Dr. Shrum's inspiration and encouragement and frequent help and scientific counsel from Dr. Jack Campbell (now Head of the Department of Microbiology at the University of British Columbia), a group began to work in the field of biologically interesting phosphate esters and nucleic acids. Among the many devoted and loyal colleagues of this period, there should, in particular, be mention of Dr. Gordon M. Tener (now a Professor in the Biochemistry Department of the University of British Columbia), who contributed much to the spiritual and intellectual well-being of the group.

In 1960 Khorana moved to the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States. As of the fall of 1970 Khorana has been Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Har Gobind Khorana was married in 1952 to Esther Elizabeth Sibler, who is of Swiss origin. Esther brought a consistent sense of purpose into his life at a time when, after six years' absence from the country of his birth, Khorana felt out of place everywhere and at home nowhere. They have three children: Julia Elizabeth (born May 4th, 1953), Emily Anne (born October 18th, 1954), and Dave Roy (born July 26th, 1958).

Most adults carry multiple herpesviruses. Following the initial acute infection, these viruses establish life-long infections in their hosts and cause cold sores, keratitis, genital herpes, shingles, infectious mononucleosis, and other diseases. Some herpesviruses can cause cancer in man. During the latent phase of infection, the viruses remain dormant for long periods of time, but retain the capacity to cause occasional reactivations, that may lead to disease. A study published on June 30th in PLOS Pathogens suggests that attacking herpesvirus DNA with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology can suppress virus replication and, in some cases, lead to elimination of the virus.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system targets specific DNA sequences and induces clean cuts across both strands of the DNA. In mammalian cells, such cuts are flagged and quickly repaired by an emergency repair system called NHEJ (for non-homologous end-joining). NHEJ is efficient but not very accurate and often results in insertion or deletion of a few DNA bases at the repair site. Because DNA is read in codons of three bases at a time, such small changes in critical positions often destroy the function of the respective gene and its protein product.

Robert Jan Lebbink, from the University Medical Center in Utrecht, The Netherlands, and colleagues reasoned that CRISPR/Cas9 could target and mutate latent herpesvirus DNA in infected human cells and so potentially prevent herpesvirus-associated diseases. To test this, the researchers devised specific guide (g)RNAs—sequences that are complementary to vital parts of the viral genome and function as 'molecular addresses'. These gRNAs, combined with the 'molecular scissors' part of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, should induce specific cuts and subsequent mutations in the herpesvirus DNA, and so cripple the viruses.

In their systematic approach, the researchers looked at three different members of the herpesvirus group: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causing cold sores and herpes keratitis; human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the most common viral cause of birth defects (when the virus is transmitted from mother to fetus); and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causing infectious mononucleosis and multiple types of cancer.

Working with lymphoma cells latently infected with EBV, the researchers showed that introduction of gRNAs that target specific EBV DNA sequences can introduce mutations at the targeted sites. Such mutations can eliminate essential functions of the virus as well as de-stabilize the viral DNA molecules. Consistent with this, the researchers report that by using two different gRNAs targeting an essential EBV gene, they can induce loss of over 95% of EBV genomes from the host cells.

During latent infection, HCMV genomes exist as circular DNA molecules in the nucleus of host cells. Upon virus reactivation, HCMV replication proceeds slowly. With appropriate gRNAs, the researchers found that CRISPR/Cas9 editing can efficiently impair HCMV replication. However, they also observed emergence of escape variants that bypass CRISPR/Cas9 editing, suggesting that simultaneous editing at multiple critical sites in the HCMV genome is necessary to avoid the development of resistant genomes.

Compared to HCMV, HSV-1 multiplies much faster. When the researchers tested various gRNAs targeting different essential HSV-1 genes in conjunction with CRISPR/Cas9, they found that many of them were able to reduce virus replication. When they combined two of those gRNAs, thereby simultaneously targeting two essential genes, they were able to completely suppress HSV-1 replication. On the other hand, they were unable to induce editing during the latent phase, i.e. when the viral DNA was not actively multiplying.

"We observed highly efficient and specific clearance of EBV from latently infected tumor cells and impairment of HSV-1 and HCMV replication in human cells", the researchers summarize. They go on to say, "although CRISPR/Cas9 was inefficient at directing genome engineering of quiescent HSV-1, virus replication upon reactivation of quiescent HSV-1 was efficiently abrogated using anti-HSV-1 gRNAs". Their results, they hope, "may allow the design of effective therapeutic strategies to target human herpesviruses during both latent and productive infections."

Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

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Published in Informative
Friday, 14 October 2016 13:58

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry is a monthly, peer-reviewedscientific journal published by the Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agrochemistry, of which it is the official journal. It was established in 1924 as Bulletin of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan, which was renamed to Agriculture and Biological Chemistry in 1961. The journal took its current name in 1991.


The focus of Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry is previously unpublished original research results on all topics and fields concerning bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. In addition, articles cover basic and applied sciences regarding microorganisms, including systems supporting their production, and structure. Broad topical coverage includes organic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, enzymology, biopolymer science, microbiology (including virology), animal science, plant science, food science, and environmental science.

Research applications are directed toward human welfare in general. Hence applications are transferred to industries of fermentation, chemistry and biochemistry, medicines and pharmaceuticals, foods and feeds, and agriculture.

Abstracting and indexing

Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry is indexed in the following databases.

According to the Journal Citation Reports, it has an impact factor of 1.063 for 2014.


  1. "Agricultural and Biological Chemistry". Literature / Source Database. European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  2. "Agricultural and Biological Chemistry". Library of Congress Online Catalog. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  3. "Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry".Literature/Source database. European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  4. "An Introduction to the Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agrochemistry". Academy of Science, Fields of Research, Contributions. JSBBA. August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-19.

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Is Drinking Cold Water Bad?

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Published in Informative
Monday, 10 October 2016 16:27
Claim- Drinking a cold glass of water after a meal can harm you. The cold water will solidify the oily stuff that you have just consumed, which will line the intestines and lead to cancer.
Is that Bovine Waste Matter I smell?
Verdict- False. Even if you accepted these claims as truth, a statement such as "A cardiologist says if you forward this to 10 people..." should have set off any properly working bullshit meter with a host of bells and flashing red lights. When you drink cold water, it is entering a system that self regulates to keep its core temperature within about half a degree, or around 37 c (98.6 f). ( For those that are wondering, typical oral temperature readings should be slightly cooler at 36.8c (96.2f)). From the time the water first comes into contact with your body, the heat transfer will begin to warm it up, and it will equalize within a few minutes. As an added bonus, drinking a half liter of ice cold water will actually make your body burn around 17 Calories in order to keep its temperature constant. The meal that you just consumed will not be affected in any way, as it will still end up at around the same temperature right up until you... uh "drop it off at the pool", regardless if you decided to wash it down with coffee or ice water afterwards.
Evil Ambitions?
Clogged large intestines do not cause cancer, they are a sign of cancer. Cancer is an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body. One way to think of it is when your cells replicate, a small error suddenly occurs in the copy process. That error gets passed down to the next copy and the next copy and the next. Before you know it, that one erroneous cell is now 2, then 4, then 16, then 256... eventually replacing all the good cells with cheap knock offs, and before long you're shopping for replacement parts because the original one(s) can no longer function the way it was meant to. (Sorry for the bad analogy. I think I have been working on cars too much lately.) Don't worry too much if you're feeling a little clogged up though because there are many other reasons for blockage, and most can be solved with a little bit of fiber in your diet.
A Donor Heart Waiting For The Doctor To Get Back From The Golf Course.
The heart attack information is reasonably accurate but a little incoherent. Jaw pain may be a symptom of a heart attack, but typically accompanying other symptoms. The American Heart Association's warning signs your ticker may be faulty include;
  • Uncomfortable Pressure, a squeezing or pain in the middle of your chest lasting for more than a few minutes
  • Mild to intense pain spreading to the shoulders, arms, or neck, or jaw.
  • Chest discomfort, feeling light headed, fainting, sweating, nausea, shortness of breath. Anxiety, nervousness, cold or sweaty skin, irregular heart rate,
Not all of these signs will necessarily occur. If you have one or more of these signs it is recommended you seek medical attention immediately, or you're going to end up having a really bad time.

  1. Snopes Cold Water Myth *
  2. Human Body Temperature *
  3. Heart Attack Symptoms And Signs *
  4. Bowel Obstruction Symptoms And Causes *

Useful Sites

  • NCBI

    National Center for Biotechnology Information
  • LTO

    Lab Tests Online® by AACC
  • ASCP

    American Society for Clinical Pathology
  • ASM

    American Society for Microbiology
  • The Medical Library®

    Project of

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