Published in Clinical Pathology
Monday, 14 August 2017 13:42
Biochemical markers (Table 831.1) can be measured in semen to test the secretions of accessory structures. These include fructose (seminal vesicles), zinc, citric acid or acid phosphatase (prostate), and α-glucosidase or carnitine (epididymis).
Table 831.1 Biochemical variables of semen analysis (World Helath Organization, 1992)
1. Total fructose (seminal vesicle marker) ≥13 μmol/ejaculate
2. Total zinc (Prostate marker) ≥2.4 μmol/ejaculate
3. Total acid phosphatase (Prostate marker) ≥200U/ejaculate
4. Total citric acid (Prostate marker) ≥52 μmol/ejaculate
5. α-glucosidase (Epididymis marker) ≥20 mU/ejaculate
6. Carnitine (Epididymis marker) 0.8-2.9 μmol/ejaculate
Resorcinol method is used for detection of fructose. In this test, 5 ml of resorcinol reagent (50 mg resorcinol dissolved in 33 ml concentrated hydrochloric acid; dilute up to 100 ml with distilled water) is added to 0.5 ml of seminal fluid. The mixture is heated and brought to boil. If fructose is present, a red-colored precipitate is formed within 30 seconds.
Absence of fructose indicates obstruction proximal to seminal vesicles (obstructed or absent vas deferens) or a lack of seminal vesicles. In a case of azoospermia, if fructose is absent, it is due to the obstruction of ejaculatory ducts or absence of vas deferens, and if present, azoospermia is due to failure of testes to produce sperm.


Published in Clinical Pathology
Monday, 14 August 2017 13:04
Examination is carried out after liquefaction of semen that occurs usually within 20-30 minutes of ejaculation.
Normal semen is viscous and opaque gray-white in appearance. After prolonged abstinence, it appears slightly yellow.
Immediately following ejaculation, normal semen is thick and viscous. It becomes liquefied within 30 minutes by the action of proteolytic enzymes secreted by prostate. If liquefaction does not occur within 60 minutes, it is abnormal. The viscosity of the sample is assessed by filling a pipette with semen and allowing it to flow back into the container. Normal semen will fall drop by drop. If droplets form ‘threads’ more than 2 cm long, then viscosity is increased. Increased semen viscosity affects sperm motility and leads to poor invasion of cervical mucus; it results from infection of seminal vesicles or prostate.
Volume of ejaculated semen sample should normally be > 2 ml. It is measured after the sample has liquefied. Volume < 2.0 ml is abnormal, and is associated with low sperm count.
4. pH
A drop of liquefied semen is spread on pH paper (of pH range 6.4-8.0) and pH is recorded after 30 seconds. Normal pH is 7.2 to 8.0 after 1 hour of ejaculation. The portion of semen contributed by seminal vesicles is basic, while portion from prostate is acidic. Low pH (< 7.0) with absence of sperms (azoospermia) suggests obstruction of ejaculatory ducts or absence of vas deferens. Low pH is usually associated with low semen volume (as most of the volume is supplied by seminal vesicles).


Published in Forensic Pathology
Sunday, 13 August 2017 17:08
This includes examination of material obtained from vagina, stains from clothing, skin, hair, or other body parts for semen. This is carried out in cases of alleged rape or sexual assault.
Collection of Sample
  • Vagina: Direct aspiration or saline lavage
  • Clothing: When scanned with ultraviolet light, semen produces green white fluorescence. A small piece (1 m2) of clothing from stained portion is soaked in 1-2 ml of physiologic saline for 1 hour. A similar piece of clothing distant from the stain is also soaked in saline as a control.

Presence of motile sperms in vaginal fluid indicates interval of < 8 hours. Smears prepared from collected samples are stained and examined for the presence of sperms.
Acid phosphatase is determined on vaginal or clothing samples. Due to the high level of acid phosphatase in semen, its presence indicates recent sexual intercourse. Level of ≥50 U/sample is considered as positive evidence of semen.
When semen is positively identified in vaginal fluid or other sample, test can be carried out for the presence of blood group substances in the same sample. The ‘secretor’ individuals (80% individuals are secretors) will secrete the blood group substances in body fluids, including semen.
This test detects the presence of choline found in high concentration in semen. To several drops of sample, add equal volume of reagent (iodine 2.54 g, potassium iodide 1.65 g, distilled water 30 ml); in positive test rhombic or needle-like crystals of periodide of choline form. False-positive tests can occur due to high choline content of some other body fluids.


Published in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 13 August 2017 02:34
Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3 or more number of red blood cells per high power field on microscopic examination of urinary sediment in two out of three properly collected samples. A small number of red blood cells in urine of low specific gravity may undergo lysis, and therefore hematuria may be missed if only microscopic examination is done. Therefore, microscopic examination of urine should be combined with a chemical test.
These detect both intracellular and extracellular hemoglobin (i.e. intact and lysed red cells) as well as myoglobin. Heme proteins in hemoglobin act as peroxidase, which reduces hydrogen peroxide to water. This process needs a hydrogen donor (benzidine, orthotoluidine, or guaiac). Oxidation of hydrogen donor leads to development of a color (Figure 828.1). Intensity of color produced is proportional to the amount of hemoglobin present.
Chemical tests are positive in hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria.
Figure 828.1 Principle of chemical test for red cells
Figure 828.1 Principle of chemical test for red cells, hemoglobin, or myoglobin in urine
Benzidine Test
Make saturated solution of benzidine in glacial acetic acid. Mix 1 ml of this solution with 1 ml of hydrogen peroxide in a test tube. Add 2 ml of urine. If green or blue color develops within 5 minutes, the test is positive.
Orthotoluidine Test
In this test, instead of benzidine, orthotoluidine is used. It is more sensitive than benzidine test.
Reagent Strip Test
Various reagent strips are commercially available which use different chromogens (o-toluidine, tetramethylbenzidine).
Causes of false-positive tests:
  • Contamination of urine by menstrual blood in females
  • Contamination of urine by oxidizing agent (e.g. hypochlorite or bleach used to clean urine containers), or microbial peroxidase in urinary tract infection.
Causes of false-negative tests:
  • Presence of a reducing agent like ascorbic acid in high concentration: Microscopic examination for red cells is positive but chemical test is negative.
  • Use of formalin as a preservative for urine
Evaluation of positive chemical test for blood is shown in Figure 828.2.
Figure 828.2 Evaluation of positive chemical test for blood in urine
Figure 828.2 Evaluation of positive chemical test for blood in urine


Published in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 10 August 2017 23:29
The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below:
  • Proteins
  • Glucose
  • Ketones
  • Bilirubin
  • Bile salts
  • Urobilinogen
  • Blood
  • Hemoglobin
  • Myoglobin
  • Nitrite or leukocyte esterase

Normally, kidneys excrete scant amount of protein in urine (up to 150 mg/24 hours). These proteins include proteins from plasma (albumin) and proteins derived from urinary tract (Tamm-Horsfall protein, secretory IgA, and proteins from tubular epithelial cells, leucocytes, and other desquamated cells); this amount of proteinuria cannot be detected by routine tests. (Tamm-Horsfall protein is a normal mucoprotein secreted by ascending limb of the loop of Henle).
Proteinuria refers to protein excretion in urine greater than 150 mg/24 hours in adults.
Causes of Proteinuria

Box 826.1: Causes of proteinuria

• Glomerular proteinuria
• Tubular proteinuria
• Overflow proteinuria
• Hemodynamic (functional) proteinuria
• Post-renal proteinuria
Causes of proteinuria can be grouped as shown in Box 826.1.
  • Glomerular proteinuria: Proteinuria due to increased permeability of glomerular capillary wall is called as glomerular proteinuria.

    There are two types of glomerular proteinuria: selective and nonselective. In early stages of glomerular disease, there is increased excretion of lower molecular weight proteins like albumin and transferrin. When glomeruli can retain larger molecular weight proteins but allow passage of comparatively lower molecular weight proteins, the proteinuria is called as selective. With further glomerular damage, this selectivity is lost and larger molecular weight proteins (γ globulins) are also excreted along with albumin; this is called as nonselective proteinuria.

    Selective and nonselective proteinuria can be distinguished by urine protein electrophoresis. In selective proteinuria, albumin and transferrin bands are seen, while in nonselective type, the pattern resembles that of serum (Figure 826.1).

    • Massive proteinuria (>3.5 gm/24 hr)
    • Hypoalbuminemia (<3.0 gm/dl)
    • Generalised edema
    Hyperlipidemia (serum cholesterol >350 mg/dl)
    • Lipiduria
    Causes of glomerular proteinuria are glomerular diseases that cause increased permeability of glomerular basement membrane. The degree of glomerular proteinuria correlates with severity of disease and prognosis. Serial estimations of urinary protein are also helpful in monitoring response to treatment. Most severe degree of proteinuria occurs in nephrotic syndrome (Box 826.2).

  • Tubular proteinuria: Normally, glomerular membrane, although impermeable to high molecular weight proteins, allows ready passage to low molecular weight proteins like β2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, α1-microglobulin, and free immunoglobulin light chains. These low molecular weight proteins are actively reabsorbed by proximal renal tubules. In diseases involving mainly tubules, these proteins are excreted in urine while albumin excretion is minimal.

    Urine electrophoresis shows prominent α- and β-bands (where low molecular weight proteins migrate) and a faint albumin band (Figure 826.1).

    Tubular type of proteinuria is commonly seen in acute and chronic pyelonephritis, heavy metal poisoning, tuberculosis of kidney, interstitial nephritis, cystinosis, Fanconi syndrome and rejection of kidney transplant.

    Purely tubular proteinuria cannot be detected by reagent strip test (which is sensitive to albumin), but heat and acetic acid test and sulphosalicylic acid test are positive.

  • Overflow proteinuria: When concentration of a low molecular weight protein rises in plasma, it “overflows” from plasma into the urine. Such proteins are immunoglobulin light chains or Bence Jones proteins (plasma cell dyscrasias), hemoglobin (intravascular hemolysis), myoglobin (skeletal muscle trauma), and lysozyme (acute myeloid leukemia type M4 or M5).

  • Hemodynamic proteinuria: Alteration of blood flow through the glomeruli causes increased filtration of proteins. Protein excretion, however, is transient. It is seen in high fever, hypertension, heavy exercise, congestive cardiac failure, seizures, and exposure to cold.

    Postural (orthostatic) proteinuria occurs when the subject is standing or ambulatory, but is absent in recumbent position. It is common in adolescents (3-5%) and is probably due to lordotic posture that causes inferior venacaval compression between the liver and vertebral column. The condition disappears in adulthood. Amount of proteinuria is <1000 mg/day. First-morning urine after rising is negative for proteins, while another urine sample collected after patient performs normal activities is positive for proteins. In such patients, periodic testing for proteinuria should be done to rule out renal disease.

  • Post-renal proteinuria: This is caused by inflammatory or neoplastic conditions in renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, prostate, or urethra.
Figure 826.1 Glomerular and tubular proteinuria
Figure 826.1 Glomerular and tubular proteinuria. Upper figure shows normal serum protein electrophoresis pattern. Lower part shows comparison of serum and urine electrophoresis in (1) selective proteinuria, (2) non-selective proteinuria, and (3) tubular proteinuria
The main indication for testing for glucose in urine is detection of unsuspected diabetes mellitus or follow-up of known diabetic patients.
Box 826.3: Urine glucose
• Urine should be tested for glucose within 2 hours of collection (due to lowering of glucose by glycolysis and by contaminating bacteria which degrade glucose rapidly)
• Reagent strip test is a rapid, inexpensive, and semi-quantitative test
• In the past this test was used for home-monitoring of glucose; the test is replaced by glucometers.
• Urine glucose cannot be used to monitor control of diabetes since renal threshold is variable amongst individuals, no information about level of blood glucose below renal threshold is obtained, and urinary glucose value is affected by concentration of urine.
Practically all of the glucose filtered by the glomeruli is reabsorbed by the proximal renal tubules and returned to circulation. Normally a very small amount of glucose is excreted in urine (< 500 mg/24 hours or <15 mg/dl) that cannot be detected by the routine tests. Presence of detectable amounts of glucose in urine is called as glucosuria or glycosuria (Box 826.3). Glycosuria results if the filtered glucose load exceeds the capacity of renal tubular reabsorption. Most common cause is hyperglycemia from diabetes mellitus.
Causes of Glycosuria
1. Glycosuria with hyperglycemia:
  • Endocrine diseases: diabetes mellitus, acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, pancreatic disease
  • Non-endocrine diseases: central nervous system diseases, liver disorders
  • Drugs: adrenocorticotrophic hormone, corticosteroids, thiazides
  • Alimentary glycosuria (Lag-storage glycosuria): After a meal, there is rapid intestinal absorption of glucose leading to transient elevation of blood glucose above renal threshold. This can occur in persons with gastrectomy or gastrojejunostomy and in hyperthyroidism. Glucose tolerance test reveals a peak at 1 hour above renal threshold (which causes glycosuria); the fasting and 2-hour glucose values are normal.
2. Glycosuria without hyperglycemia
  • Renal glycosuria: This accounts for 5% of cases of glycosuria in general population. Renal threshold is the highest glucose level in blood at which glucose appears in urine and which is detectable by routine laboratory tests. The normal renal threshold for glucose is 180 mg/dl. Threshold substances need a carrier to transport them from tubular lumen to blood. When the carrier is saturated, the threshold is reached and the substance is excreted. Up to this level glucose filtered by the glomeruli is efficiently reabsorbed by tubules. Renal glycosuria is a benign condition in which renal threshold is set below 180 mgs/dl but glucose tolerance is normal; the disorder is transmitted as autosomal dominant. Other conditions in which glycosuria can occur with blood glucose level remaining below 180 mgs/dl are renal tubular diseases in which there is decreased glucose reabsorption like Fanconi’s syndrome, and toxic renal tubular damage. During pregnancy, renal threshold for glucose is decreased. Therefore it is necessary to estimate blood glucose when glucose is first detected in urine.
Excretion of ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) in urine is called as ketonuria. Ketones are breakdown products of fatty acids and their presence in urine is indicative of excessive fatty acid metabolism to provide energy.
Causes of Ketonuria
Box 826.4: Urine ketones in diabetes
Indications for testing
• At diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
• At regular intervals in all known cases of diabetes, and in gestational diabetes
• In known diabetic patients during acute illness, persistent hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dl), pregnancy, clinical evidence of diabetic acidosis (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain)
Normally ketone bodies are not detectable in the urine of healthy persons. If energy requirements cannot be met by metabolism of glucose (due to defective carbohydrate metabolism, low carbohydrate intake, or increased metabolic needs), then energy is derived from breakdown of fats. This leads to the formation of ketone bodies (Figure 826.2).
  1. Decreased utilization of carbohydrates:
    a. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis: In diabetes, because of poor glucose utilization, there is compensatory increased lipolysis. This causes increase in the level of free fatty acids in plasma. Degradation of free fatty acids in the liver leads to the formation of acetoacetyl CoA which then forms ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are strong acids and produce H+ ions, which are neutralized by bicarbonate ions; fall in bicarbonate (i.e. alkali) level produces ketoacidosis. Ketone bodies also increase the plasma osmolality and cause cellular dehydration. Children and young adults with type 1 diabetes are especially prone to ketoacidosis during acute illness and stress. If glycosuria is present, then test for ketone bodies must be done. If both glucose and ketone bodies are present in urine, then it indicates presence of diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis (Box 826.4).
    In some cases of diabetes, ketone bodies are increased in blood but do not appear in urine.
    Presence of ketone bodies in urine may be a warning of impending ketoacidotic coma.
    b. Glycogen storage disease (von Gierke’s disease)
  2. Decreased availability of carbohydrates in the diet:
    a. Starvation
    b. Persistent vomiting in children
    c. Weight reduction program (severe carbohydrate restriction with normal fat intake)
  3. Increased metabolic needs:
    a. Fever in children
    b. Severe thyrotoxicosis
    c. Pregnancy
    d. Protein calorie malnutrition
Figure 826.2 Formation of ketone bodies
Figure 826.2 Formation of ketone bodies. A small part of acetoacetate is spontaneously and irreversibly converted to acetone. Most is converted reversibly to β-hydroxybutyrate
Bilirubin (a breakdown product of hemoglobin) is undetectable in the urine of normal persons. Presence of bilirubin in urine is called as bilirubinuria.
There are two forms of bilirubin: conjugated and unconjugated. After its formation from hemoglobin in reticuloendothelial system, bilirubin circulates in blood bound to albumin. This is called as unconjugated bilirubin. Unconjugated bilirubin is not water-soluble, is bound to albumin, and cannot pass through the glomeruli; therefore it does not appear in urine. The liver takes up unconjugated bilirubin where it combines with glucuronic acid to form bilirubin diglucuronide (conjugated bilirubiun). Conjugated bilirubin is watersoluble, is filtered by the glomeruli, and therefore appears in urine.
Detection of bilirubin in urine (along with urobilinogen) is helpful in the differential diagnosis of jaundice (Table 826.1).
Table 826.1 Urine bilirubin and urobilinogen in jaundice
Urine test Hemolytic jaundice Hepatocellular jaundice Obstructive jaundice
1. Bilirubin Absent Present Present
2. Urobilinogen Increased Increased Absent
In acute viral hepatitis, bilirubin appears in urine even before jaundice is clinically apparent. In a fever of unknown origin bilirubinuria suggests hepatitis.
Presence of bilirubin in urine indicates conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (obstructive or hepatocellular jaundice). This is because only conjugated bilirubin is water-soluble. Bilirubin in urine is absent in hemolytic jaundice; this is because unconjugated bilirubin is water-insoluble.
Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic. These bile acids combine with glycine or taurine to form complex salts or acids. Bile salts enter the small intestine through the bile and act as detergents to emulsify fat and reduce the surface tension on fat droplets so that enzymes (lipases) can breakdown the fat. In the terminal ileum, bile salts are absorbed and enter in the blood stream from where they are taken up by the liver and re-excreted in bile (enterohepatic circulation).
Conjugated bilirubin excreted into the duodenum through bile is converted by bacterial action to urobilinogen in the intestine. Major part is eliminated in the feces. A portion of urobilinogen is absorbed in blood, which undergoes recycling (enterohepatic circulation); a small amount, which is not taken up by the liver, is excreted in urine. Urobilinogen is colorless; upon oxidation it is converted to urobilin, which is orange-yellow in color. Normally about 0.5-4 mg of urobilinogen is excreted in urine in 24 hours. Therefore, a small amount of urobilinogen is normally detectable in urine.
Urinary excretion of urobilinogen shows diurnal variation with highest levels in afternoon. Therefore, a 2-hour post-meal sample is preferred.
Causes of Increased Urobilinogen in Urine
  1. Hemolysis: Excessive destruction of red cells leads to hyperbilirubinemia and therefore increased formation of urobilinogen in the gut. Bilirubin, being of unconjugated type, does not appear in urine. Increased urobilinogen in urine without bilirubin is typical of hemolytic anemia. This also occurs in megaloblastic anemia due to premature destruction of erythroid precursors in bone marrow (ineffective erythropoiesis).
  2. Hemorrhage in tissues: There is increased formation of bilirubin from destruction of red cells.
Causes of Reduced Urobilinogen in Urine
  1. Obstructive jaundice: In biliary tract obstruction, delivery of bilirubin to the intestine is restricted and very little or no urobilinogen is formed. This causes stools to become clay-colored.
  2. Reduction of intestinal bacterial flora: This prevents conversion of bilirubin to urobilinogen in the intestine. It is observed in neonates and following antibiotic treatment.
Testing of urine for both bilirubin and urobilinogen can provide helpful information in a case of jaundice (Table 826.1).
The presence of abnormal number of intact red blood cells in urine is called as hematuria. It implies presence of a bleeding lesion in the urinary tract. Bleeding in urine may be noted macroscopically or with naked eye (gross hematuria). If bleeding is noted only by microscopic examination or by chemical tests, then it is called as occult, microscopic or hidden hematuria.
Causes of Hematuria
1. Diseases of urinary tract:
  • Glomerular diseases: Glomerulonephritis, Berger’s disease, lupus nephritis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura
  • Nonglomerular diseases: Calculus, tumor, infection, tuberculosis, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, trauma, after strenuous physical exercise, diseases of prostate (benign hyperplasia of prostate, carcinoma of prostate).
2. Hematological conditions:
Coagulation disorders, sickle cell disease Presence of red cell casts and proteinuria along with hematuria suggests glomerular cause of hematuria.
Presence of free hemoglobin in urine is called as hemoglobinuria.
Causes of Hemoglobinuria
  1. Hematuria with subsequent lysis of red blood cells in urine of low specific gravity.
  2. Intravascular hemolysis: Hemoglobin will appear in urine when haptoglobin (to which hemoglobin binds in plasma) is completely saturated with hemoglobin. Intravascular hemolysis occurs in infections (severe falciparum malaria, clostridial infection, E. coli septicemia), trauma to red cells (march hemoglobinuria, extensive burns, prosthetic heart valves), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency following exposure to oxidant drugs, immune hemolysis (mismatched blood transfusion, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Tests for Detection of Hemoglobinuria
Tests for detection of hemoglobinuria are benzidine test, orthotoluidine test, and reagent strip test.
Hemosiderin in urine (hemosiderinuria) indicates presence of free hemoglobin in plasma. Hemosiderin appears as blue granules when urine sediment is stained with Prussian blue stain (Figure 826.3). Granules are located inside tubular epithelial cells or may be free if cells have disintegrated. Hemosiderinuria is seen in intravascular hemolysis.
Figure 826.3 Staining of urine sediment with Prussian blue stain
Figure 826.3 Staining of urine sediment with Prussian blue stain to demonstrate hemosiderin granules (blue)
Myoglobin is a protein present in striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac) which binds oxygen. Causes of myoglobinuria include injury to skeletal or cardiac muscle, e.g. crush injury, myocardial infarction, dermatomyositis, severe electric shock, and thermal burns.
Chemical tests used for detection of blood or hemoglobin also give positive reaction with myoglobin (as both hemoglobin and myoglobin have peroxidase activity). Ammonium sulfate solubility test is used as a screening test for myoglobinuria (Myoglobin is soluble in 80% saturated solution of ammonium sulfate, while hemoglobin is insoluble and is precipitated. A positive chemical test for blood done on supernatant indicates myoglobinuria).
Distinction between hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria is shown in Table 826.2
Table 826.2 Differentiation between hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria
Parameter Hematuria Hemoglobinuria Myoglobinuria
 1. Urine color  Normal, smoky, red, or brown  Pink, red, or brown  Red or brown
 2. Plasma color  Normal  Pink  Normal
 3. Urine test based on peroxidase activity  Positive  Positive  Positive
 4. Urine microscopy  Many red cells  Occasional red cell  Occasional red cell
 5. Serum haptoglobin  Normal  Low  Normal
 6. Serum creatine kinase  Normal  Normal  Markedly increased
Chemical Tests for Significant Bacteriuria (Indirect Tests for Urinary Tract Infection)
In addition to direct microscopic examination of urine sample, chemical tests are commercially available in a reagent strip format that can detect significant bacteriuria: nitrite test and leucocyte esterase test. These tests are helpful at places where urine microscopy is not available. If these tests are positive, urine culture is indicated.
1. Nitrite test: Nitrites are not present in normal urine; ingested nitrites are converted to nitrate and excreted in urine. If gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E.coli, Salmonella, Proteus, Klebsiella, etc.) are present in urine, they will reduce the nitrates to nitrites through the action of bacterial enzyme nitrate reductase. Nitrites are then detected in urine by reagent strip tests. As E. coli is the commonest organism causing urinary tract infection, this test is helpful as a screening test for urinary tract infection.
Some organisms like Staphylococci or Pseudomonas do not reduce nitrate to nitrite and therefore in such infections nitrite test is negative. Also, urine must be retained in the bladder for minimum of 4 hours for conversion of nitrate to nitrite to occur; therefore, fresh early morning specimen is preferred. Sufficient dietary intake of nitrate is necessary. Therefore a negative nitrite test does not necessarily indicate absence of urinary tract infection. The test detects about 70% cases of urinary tract infections.
2. Leucocyte esterase test: It detects esterase enzyme released in urine from granules of leucocytes. Thus the test is positive in pyuria. If this test is positive, urine culture should be done. The test is not sensitive to leucocytes < 5/HPF.


Published in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 10 August 2017 00:57
Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”.
Urine consists of various microscopic, insoluble, solid elements in suspension. These elements are classified as organized or unorganized. Organized substances include red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, casts, bacteria, and parasites. The unorganized substances are crystalline and amorphous material. These elements are suspended in urine and on standing they settle down and sediment at the bottom of the container; therefore they are known as urinary deposits or urinary sediments. Examination of urinary deposit is helpful in diagnosis of urinary tract diseases as shown in Table 825.1.
Table 825.1 Urinary findings in renal diseases
Condition Albumin RBCs/HPF WBCs/HPF Casts/LPF Others
1. Normal 0-trace 0-2 0-2 Occasional (Hyaline)
2. Acute glomerulonephritis 1-2+ Numerous;dysmorphic 0-few Red cell, granular Smoky urine or hematuria
3. Nephrotic syndrome > 4+ 0-few 0-few Fatty, hyaline, Waxy, epithelial Oval fat bodies, lipiduria
4. Acute pyelonephritis 0-1+ 0-few Numerous WBC, granular WBC clumps, bacteria, nitrite test
HPF: High power field; LPF: Low power field; RBCs: Red blood cells; WBCs: White blood cells.
Different types of urinary sediments are shown in Figure 825.1. The major aim of microscopic examination of urine is to identify different types of cellular elements and casts. Most crystals have little clinical significance.
Figure 825.1 Different types of urinary sediment
Figure 825.1 Different types of urinary sediment
Specimen: The cellular elements are best preserved in acid, hypertonic urine; they deteriorate rapidly in alkaline, hypotonic solution. A mid-stream, freshly voided, first morning specimen is preferred since it is the most concentrated. The specimen should be examined within 2 hours of voiding because cells and casts degenerate upon standing at room temperature. If preservative is required, then 1 crystal of thymol or 1 drop of formalin (40%) is added to about 10 ml of urine.
Method: A well-mixed sample of urine (12 ml) is centrifuged in a centrifuge tube for 5 minutes at 1500 rpm and supernatant is poured off. The tube is tapped at the bottom to resuspend the sediment (in 0.5 ml of urine). A drop of this is placed on a glass slide and covered with a cover slip (Figure 825.2). The slide is examined immediately under the microscope using first the low power and then the high power objective. The condenser should be lowered to better visualize the elements by reducing the illumination.
Figure 825.2 Preparation of urine sediment for microscopic examination
Figure 825.2 Preparation of urine sediment for microscopic examination
Cellular elements in urine are shown in Figure 825.3.
Figure 825.3 Cells in urine
Figure 825.3 Cells in urine (1) Isomorphic red blood cells, (2) Crenated red cells, (3) Swollen red cells, (4) Dysmorphic red cells, (5) White blood cells (pus cells), (6) Squamous epithelial cell, (7) Transitional epithelial cells, (8) Renal tubular epithelial cells, (9) Oval fat bodies, (10) Maltese cross pattern of oval fat bodies, and (11) spermatozoa
Red Blood Cells
Normally there are no or an occasional red blood cell in urine. In a fresh urine sample, red cells appear as small, smooth, yellowish, anucleate biconcave disks about 7 μ in diameter (called as isomorphic red cells). However, red cells may appear swollen (thin discs of greater diameter, 9-10 μ) in dilute or hypotonic urine, or may appear crenated (smaller diameter with spikey surface) in hypertonic urine. In glomerulonephritis, red cells are typically described as being dysmorphic (i.e. markedly variable in size and shape). They result from passage of red cells through the damaged glomeruli. Presence of > 80% of dysmorphic red cells is strongly suggestive of glomerular pathology.
The quantity of red cells can be reported as number of red cells per high power field.
Causes of hematuria have been listed earlier.
White Blood Cells (Pus Cells)
White blood cells are spherical, 10-15 μ in size, granular in appearance in which nuclei may be visible. Degenerated white cells are distorted, smaller, and have fewer granules. Clumps of numerous white cells are seen in infections. Presence of many white cells in urine is called as pyuria. In hypotonic urine white cells are swollen and the granules are highly refractile and show Brownian movement; such cells are called as glitter cells; large numbers are indicative of injury to urinary tract.
Normally 0-2 white cells may be seen per high power field. Pus cells greater than 10/HPF or presence of clumps is suggestive of urinary tract infection.
Increased numbers of white cells occur in fever, pyelonephritis, lower urinary tract infection, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and renal transplant rejection.
In urinary tract infection, following are usually seen in combination:
  • Clumps of pus cells or pus cells >10/HPF
  • Bacteria
  • Albuminuria
  • Positive nitrite test
Simultaneous presence of white cells and white cell casts indicates presence of renal infection (pyelonephritis).
Eosinophils (>1% of urinary leucocytes) are a characteristic feature of acute interstitial nephritis due to drug reaction (better appreciated with a Wright’s stain).
Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells
Presence of renal tubular epithelial cells is a significant finding. Increased numbers are found in conditions causing tubular damage like acute tubular necrosis, pyelonephritis, viral infection of kidney, allograft rejection, and salicylate or heavy metal poisoning.
These cells are small (about the same size or slightly larger than white blood cell), polyhedral, columnar, or oval, and have granular cytoplasm. A single, large, refractile, eccentric nucleus is often seen.
Renal tubular epithelial cells are difficult to distinguish from pus cells in unstained preparations.
Squamous Epithelial Cells
Squamous epithelial cells line the lower urethra and vagina. They are best seen under low power objective (×10). Presence of large numbers of squamous cells in urine indicates contamination of urine with vaginal fluid. These are large cells, rectangular in shape, flat with abundant cytoplasm and a small, central nucleus.
Transitional Epithelial Cells
Transitional cells line renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder, and upper urethra. These cells are large, and diamond- or pear-shaped (caudate cells). Large numbers or sheets of these cells in urine occur after catheterization and in transitional cell carcinoma.
Oval Fat Bodies
These are degenerated renal tubular epithelial cells filled with highly refractile lipid (cholesterol) droplets. Under polarized light, they show a characteristic “Maltese cross” pattern. They can be stained with a fat stain such as Sudan III or Oil Red O. They are seen in nephrotic syndrome in which there is lipiduria.
They may sometimes be seen in urine of men.
Telescoped urinary sediment: This refers to urinary sediment consisting of red blood cells, white blood cells, oval fat bodies, and all types of casts in roughly equal proportion. It occurs in lupus nephritis, malignant hypertension, rapidly proliferative glomerulonephritis, and diabetic glomerulosclerosis.
Organisms detectable in urine are shown in Figure 825.4.
Figure 825.4 Organisms in urine
Figure 825.4 Organisms in urine: (A) Bacteria, (B) Yeasts, (C) Trichomonas, and (D) Egg of Schistosoma haematobium
Bacteria in urine can be detected by microscopic examination, reagent strip tests for significant bacteriuria (nitrite test, leucocyte esterase test), and culture
Significant bacteriuria exists when there are >105 bacterial colony forming units/ml of urine in a cleancatch midstream sample, >104 colony forming units/ml of urine in catheterized sample, and >103 colonyforming units/ml of urine in a suprapubic aspiration sample.
  1. Microscopic examination: In a wet preparation, presence of bacteria should be reported only when urine is fresh. Bacteria occur in combination with pus cells. Gram’s-stained smear of uncentrifuged urine showing 1 or more bacteria per oil-immersion field suggests presence of > 105 bacterial colony forming units/ml of urine. If many squamous cells are present, then urine is probably contaminated with vaginal flora. Also, presence of only bacteria without pus cells indicates contamination with vaginal or skin flora.
  2. Chemical or reagent strip tests for significant bacteriuria: These are given earlier.
  3. Culture: On culture, a colony count of >105/ml is strongly suggestive of urinary tract infection, even in asymptomatic females. Positive culture is followed by sensitivity test. Most infections are due to Gram-negative enteric bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli.
If three or more species of bacteria are identified on culture, it almost always indicates contamination by vaginal flora.
Negative culture in the presence of pyuria (‘sterile’ pyuria) occurs with prior antibiotic therapy, renal tuberculosis, prostatitis, renal calculi, catheterization, fever in children (irrespective of cause), female genital tract infection, and non-specific urethritis in males.
Yeast Cells (Candida)
These are round or oval structures of approximately the same size as red blood cells. In contrast to red cells, they show budding, are oval and more refractile, and are not soluble in 2% acetic acid.
Presence of Candida in urine may suggest immunocompromised state, vaginal candidiasis, or diabetes mellitus. Usually pyuria is present if there is infection by Candida. Candida may also be a contaminant in the sample and therefore urine sample must be examined in a fresh state.
Trichomonas vaginalis
These are motile organisms with pear shape, undulating membrane on one side, and four flagellae. They cause vaginitis in females and are thus contaminants in urine. They are easily detected in fresh urine due to their motility.
Eggs of Schistosoma haematobium
Infection by this organism is prevalent in Egypt.
They may be seen in urine in chyluria due to rupture of a urogenital lymphatic vessel.
Urinary casts are cylindrical, cigar-shaped microscopic structures that form in distal renal tubules and collecting ducts. They take the shape and diameter of the lumina (molds or ‘casts’) of the renal tubules. They have parallel sides and rounded ends. Their length and width may be variable. Casts are basically composed of a precipitate of a protein that is secreted by tubules (Tamm-Horsfall protein). Since casts form only in renal tubules their presence is indicative of disease of the renal parenchyma. Although there are several types of casts, all urine casts are basically hyaline; various types of casts are formed when different elements get deposited on the hyaline material (Figure 825.5). Casts are best seen under low power objective (×10) with condenser lowered down to reduce the illumination.
Figure 825.5 Genesis of casts in urine
 Figure 825.5 Genesis of casts in urine. All cellular casts degenerate to granular and waxy casts
Casts are the only elements in the urinary sediment that are specifically of renal origin.
Casts (Figure 825.6) are of two main types:
  1. Noncellular: Hyaline, granular, waxy, fatty
  2. Cellular: Red blood cell, white blood cell, renal tubular epithelial cell.
Hyaline and granular casts may appear in normal or diseased states. All other casts are found in kidney diseases.
Figure 825.6 Urinary casts
Figure 825.6 Urinary casts: (A) Hyaline cast, (B) Granular cast, (C) Waxy cast, (D) Fatty cast, (E) Red cell cast, (F) White cell cast, and (G) Epithelial cast
Non-cellular Casts
Hyaline casts: These are the most common type of casts in urine and are homogenous, colorless, transparent, and refractile. They are cylindrical with parallel sides and blunt, rounded ends and low refractive index. Presence of occasional hyaline cast is considered as normal. Their presence in increased numbers (“cylinduria”) is abnormal. They are composed primarily of Tamm-Horsfall protein. They occur transiently after strenuous muscle exercise in healthy persons and during fever. Increased numbers are found in conditions causing glomerular proteinuria.
Granular casts: Presence of degenerated cellular debris in a cast makes it granular in appearance. These are cylindrical structures with coarse or fine granules (which represent degenerated renal tubular epithelial cells) embedded in Tamm-Horsfall protein matrix. They are seen after strenuous muscle exercise and in fever, acute glomerulonephritis, and pyelonephritis.
Waxy cast: These are the most easily recognized of all casts. They form when hyaline casts remain in renal tubules for long time (prolonged stasis). They have homogenous, smooth glassy appearance, cracked or serrated margins and irregular broken-off ends. The ends are straight and sharp and not rounded as in other casts. They are light yellow in color. They are most commonly seen in end-stage renal failure.
Fatty casts: These are cylindrical structures filled with highly refractile fat globules (triglycerides and cholesterol esters) in Tamm-Horsfall protein matrix. They are seen in nephrotic syndrome.
Broad casts: Broad casts form in dilated distal tubules and are seen in chronic renal failure and severe renal tubular obstruction. Both waxy and broad casts are associated with poor prognosis.
Cellular Casts
To be called as cellular, casts should contain at least three cells in the matrix. Cellular casts are named according to the type of cells entrapped in the matrix.
Red cell casts: These are cylindrical structures with red cells in Tamm-Horsfall protein matrix. They may appear brown in color due to hemoglobin pigmentation. These have greater diagnostic importance than any other cast. If present, they help to differentiate hematuria due to glomerular disease from hematuria due to other causes. RBC casts usually denote glomerular pathology e.g. acute glomerulonephritis.
White cell casts: These are cylindrical structures with white blood cells embedded in Tamm-Horsfall protein matrix. Leucocytes usually enter into tubules from the interstitium and therefore presence of leucocyte casts indicates tubulointerstitial disease like pyelonephritis.
Renal tubular epithelial cell casts: These are composed of renal tubular epithelial cells that have been sloughed off. They are seen in acute tubular necrosis, viral renal disease, heavy metal poisoning, and acute allograft rejection. Even an occasional renal tubular cast is a significant finding.
Crystals are refractile structures with a definite geometric shape due to orderly 3-dimensional arrangement of its atoms and molecules. Amorphous material (or deposit) has no definite shape and is commonly seen in the form of granular aggregates or clumps.
Crystals in urine (Figure 825.7) can be divided into two main types: (1) Normal (seen in normal urinary sediment), and (2) Abnormal (seen in diseased states).
Figure 825.7 Crystals in urine
Figure 825.7 Crystals in urine. (A) Normal crystals: (1) Calcium oxalate, (2) Triple phosphates, (3) Uric acid, (4) Amorphous phosphates, (5) Amorphous urates, (6) Ammonium urate. (B) Abnormal crystals: (1) Cysteine, (2) Cholesterol, (3) Bilirubin, (4) Tyrosine, (5) Sulfonamide, and (6) Leucine
However, crystals found in normal urine can also be seen in some diseases in increased numbers.
Most crystals have no clinical importance (particularly phosphates, urates, and oxalates). Crystals can be identified in urine by their morphology. However, before reporting presence of any abnormal crystals, it is necessary to confirm them by chemical tests.
Normal Crystals
Crystals present in acid urine:
  1. Uric acid crystals: These are variable in shape (diamond, rosette, plates), and yellow or red-brown in color (due to urinary pigment). They are soluble in alkali, and insoluble in acid. Increased numbers are found in gout and leukemia. Flat hexagonal uric acid crystals may be mistaken for cysteine crystals that also form in acid urine.
  2. Calcium oxalate crystals: These are colorless, refractile, and envelope-shaped. Sometimes dumbbell-shaped or peanut-like forms are seen. They are soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. Ingestion of certain foods like tomatoes, spinach, cabbage, asparagus, and rhubarb causes increase in their numbers. Their increased number in fresh urine (oxaluria) may also suggest oxalate stones. A large number are seen in ethylene glycol poisoning.
  3. Amorphous urates: These are urate salts of potassium, magnesium, or calcium in acid urine. They are usually yellow, fine granules in compact masses. They are soluble in alkali or saline at 60°C.
Crystals present in alkaline urine:
  1. Calcium carbonate crystals: These are small, colorless, and grouped in pairs. They are soluble in acetic acid and give off bubbles of gas when they dissolve.
  2. Phosphates: Phosphates may occur as crystals (triple phosphates, calcium hydrogen phosphate), or as amorphous deposits.
    Phosphate crystals
    Triple phosphates (ammonium magnesium phosphate): They are colorless, shiny, 3-6 sided prisms with oblique surfaces at the ends (“coffinlids”), or may have a feathery fern-like appearance.
    Calcium hydrogen phosphate (stellar phosphate): These are colorless, and of variable shape (starshaped, plates or prisms).
    Amorphous phosphates: These occur as colorless small granules, often dispersed.
    All phosphates are soluble in dilute acetic acid.
  3. Ammonium urate crystals: These occur as cactus-like (covered with spines) and called as ‘thornapple’ crystals. They are yellow-brown and soluble in acetic acid at 60°C.
Abnormal Crystals
They are rare, but result from a pathological process.
These occur in acid pH, often in large amounts. Abnormal crystals should not be reported on microscopy alone; additional chemical tests are done for confirmation.
  1. Cysteine crystals: These are colorless, clear, hexagonal (having 6 sides), very refractile plates in acid urine. They often occur in layers. They are soluble in 30% hydrochloric acid. They are seen in cysteinuria, an inborn error of metabolism. Cysteine crystals are often associated with formation of cysteine stones.
  2. Cholesterol crystals: These are colorless, refractile, flat rectangular plates with notched (missing) corners, and appear stacked in a stair-step arrangement. They are soluble in ether, chloroform, or alcohol. They are seen in lipiduria e.g. nephrotic syndrome and hypercholesterolemia. They can be positively identified by polarizing microscope.
  3. Bilirubin crystals: These are small (5 μ), brown crystals of variable shape (square, bead-like, or fine needles). Their presence can be confirmed by doing reagent strip or chemical test for bilirubin. These crystals are soluble in strong acid or alkali. They are seen in severe obstructive liver disease.
  4. Leucine crystals: These are refractile, yellow or brown, spheres with radial or concentric striations. They are soluble in alkali. They are usually found in urine along with tyrosine in severe liver disease (cirrhosis).
  5. Tyrosine crystals: They appear as clusters of fine, delicate, colorless or yellow needles and are seen in liver disease and tyrosinemia (an inborn error of metabolism). They dissolve in alkali.
  6. Sulfonamide crystals: They are variably shaped crystals, but usually appear as sheaves of needles. They occur following sulfonamide therapy. They are soluble in acetone.


Published in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 10 August 2017 00:34
Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic. These bile acids combine with glycine or taurine to form complex salts or acids. Bile salts enter the small intestine through the bile and act as detergents to emulsify fat and reduce the surface tension on fat droplets so that enzymes (lipases) can breakdown the fat. In the terminal ileum, bile salts are absorbed and enter in the blood stream from where they are taken up by the liver and re-excreted in bile (enterohepatic circulation).
Bile salts along with bilirubin can be detected in urine in cases of obstructive jaundice. In obstructive jaundice, bile salts and conjugated bilirubin regurgitate into blood from biliary canaliculi (due to increased intrabiliary pressure) and are excreted in urine. The test used for their detection is Hay’s surface tension test. The property of bile salts to lower the surface tension is utilized in this test.
Take some fresh urine in a conical glass tube. Urine should be at the room temperature. Sprinkle on the surface particles of sulphur. If bile salts are present, sulphur particles sink to the bottom because of lowering of surface tension by bile salts. If sulphur particles remain on the surface of urine, bile salts are absent.
Thymol (used as a preservative) gives false positive test.


Published in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 09 August 2017 12:21
Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and on standing at room temperature. Biliverdin cannot be detected by tests that detect bilirubin. Therefore fresh sample that is kept protected from light is required. Findings associated with bilirubinuria are listed below.

Methods for detection of bilirubin in urine are foam test, Gmelin’s test, Lugol iodine test, Fouchet’s test, Ictotest tablet test, and reagent strip test.
  1. Foam test: About 5 ml of urine in a test tube is shaken and observed for development of yellowish foam. Similar result is also obtained with proteins and highly concentrated urine. In normal urine, foam is white.
  2. Gmelin’s test: Take 3 ml of concentrated nitric acid in a test tube and slowly place equal quantity of urine over it. The tube is shaken gently; play of colors (yellow, red, violet, blue, and green) indicates positive test (Figure 823.1).
  3. Lugol iodine test: Take 4 ml of Lugol iodine solution (Iodine 1 gm, potassium iodide 2 gm, and distilled water to make 100 ml) in a test tube and add 4 drops of urine. Mix by shaking. Development of green color indicates positive test.
  4. Fouchet’s test: This is a simple and sensitive test.
    i. Take 5 ml of fresh urine in a test tube, add 2.5 ml of 10% of barium chloride, and mix well. A precipitate of sulphates appears to which bilirubin is bound (barium sulphate-bilirubin complex).
    ii. Filter to obtain the precipitate on a filter paper.
    iii. To the precipitate on the filter paper, add 1 drop of Fouchet’s reagent. (Fouchet’s reagent consists of 25 grams of trichloroacetic acid, 10 ml of 10% ferric chloride, and distilled water 100 ml).
    iv. Immediate development of blue-green color around the drop indicates presence of bilirubin (Figure 823.2).
  5. Reagent strips or tablets impregnated with diazo reagent: These tests are based on reaction of bilirubin with diazo reagent; color change is proportional to the concentration of bilirubin. Tablets (Ictotest) detect 0.05-0.1 mg of bilirubin/dl of urine; reagent strip tests are less sensitive (0.5 mg/dl).
Figure 823.1 Positive Gmelins test for bilirubin showing play of colors
Figure 823.1 Positive Gmelin’s test for bilirubin showing play of colors
Figure 823.2 Positive Fouchets test for bilirubin in urine
Figure 823.2 Positive Fouchet’s test for bilirubin in urine


Published in Clinical Pathology
Monday, 07 August 2017 18:11
The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic acid 20%, and acetone 2%.
No method for detection of ketonuria reacts with all the three ketone bodies. Rothera’s nitroprusside method and methods based on it detect acetoacetic acid and acetone (the test is 10-20 times more sensitive to acetoacetic acid than acetone). Ferric chloride test detects acetoacetic acid only. β-hydroxybutyric acid is not detected by any of the screening tests.
Methods for detection of ketone bodies in urine are Rothera’s test, Acetest tablet method, ferric chloride test, and reagent strip test.
1. ROTHERA’S’ TEST (Classic Nitroprusside Reaction)
Acetoacetic acid or acetone reacts with nitroprusside in alkaline solution to form a purple-colored complex (Figure 822.1). Rothera’s test is sensitive to 1-5 mg/dl of acetoacetate and to 10-25 mg/dl of acetone.
Figure 822.1 Principles of Rothera Test in Urine
Figure 822.1 Principles of Rothera’s test and reagent strip test for ketone bodies in urine. Ketones are detected as acetoacetic acid and acetone but not β-hydroxybutyric acid
  1. Take 5 ml of urine in a test tube and saturate it with ammonium sulphate.
  2. Add a small crystal of sodium nitroprusside. Mix well.
  3. Slowly run along the side of the test tube liquor ammonia to form a layer.
  4. Immediate formation of a purple permanganate colored ring at the junction of the two fluids indicates a positive test (Figure 822.2).
False-positive test can occur in the presence of L-dopa in urine and in phenylketonuria.
Figure 822.2 Rotheras tube test and reagent strip test for ketone bodies in urine
Figure 822.2 Rothera’s tube test and reagent strip test for ketone bodies in urine
This is Rothera’s test in the form of a tablet. The Acetest tablet consists of sodium nitroprusside, glycine, and an alkaline buffer. A purplelavender discoloration of the tablet indicates the presence of acetoacetate or acetone (≥ 5 mg/dl). A rough estimate of the amount of ketone bodies can be obtained by comparison with the color chart provided by the manufacturer.
The test is more sensitive than reagent strip test for ketones.
Addition of 10% ferric chloride solution to urine causes solution to become reddish or purplish if acetoacetic acid is present. The test is not specific since certain drugs (salicylate and L-dopa) give similar reaction. Sensitivity of the test is 25-50 mg/dl.
Reagent strips tests are modifications of nitroprusside test (Figures 822.1 and 822.2). Their sensitivity is 5-10 mg/dl of acetoacetate. If exposed to moisture, reagent strips often give false-negative result. Ketone pad on the strip test is especially vulnerable to improper storage and easily gets damaged. Also read: URINE STRIP TEST — UNDERSTANDING ITS LIMITATIONS.


Published in Clinical Pathology
Monday, 07 August 2017 13:36
This test is based on the principle that proteins get precipitated when boiled in an acidic solution.
Urine should be clear; if not, filter or use supernatant from a centrifuged sample.
Urine should be just acidic (check with litmus paper); if not, add 10% acetic acid drop by drop until blue litmus paper turns red.
A test tube is filled 2/3rds with urine. The tube is inclined at an angle and the upper portion is boiled over the flame. (Only the upper portion is heated so that convection currents generated by heat do not disturb the precipitate and the upper portion can be compared with the lower clear portion). Compare the heated part with the lower part. Cloudiness or turbidity indicates presence of either phosphates or proteins (Figure 821.1). A few drops of 10% acetic acid are added and the upper portion is boiled again. Turbidity due to phosphates disappears while that due to proteins does not.
Figure 821.1 Principle of heat test for proteins
Figure 821.1 Principle of heat test for proteins
False-positive test occurs with tolbutamide and large doses of penicillins.
The reagent area of the strip is coated with an indicator and buffered to an acid pH which changes color in the presence of proteins (Figures 821.2 and 821.3). The principle is known as “protein error of indicators”.
Figure 821.2 Principle of reagent strip test for proteins
Figure 821.2 Principle of reagent strip test for proteins. The principle is called as ‘protein error of indicators’ meaning that one color appears if protein is present and another color if protein is absent. Sensitivity is 5-10 mg/dl. The test does not detect Bence Jones proteins, hemoglobin, and myoglobin
The reagent area is impregnated with bromophenol blue indicator buffered to pH 3.0 with citrate. When the dye gets adsorbed to protein, there is change in ionization (and hence pH) of the indicator that leads to change in color of the indicator. The intensity of the color produced is proportional to the concentration of protein. The test is semi-quantitative.
Figure 821.3 Grading of proteinuria with reagent strip test
Figure 821.3 Grading of proteinuria with reagent strip test (above) and sulphosalicylic acid test (below)
Reagent strip test is mainly reactive to albumin. It is false-negative in the presence of Bence Jones proteins, myoglobin, and hemoglobin. Overload (Bence Jones) proteinuria and tubular proteinuria may be missed entirely if only reagent strip method is used. This test should be followed by sulphosalicylic acid test, which is a confirmatory test. Highly alkaline urine, gross hematuria, and contamination with vaginal secretions can give false-positive reactions. Also read: URINE STRIP TEST — UNDERSTANDING ITS LIMITATIONS.
Addition of sulphosalicylic acid to the urine causes formation of a white precipitate if proteins are present (Proteins are denatured by organic acids and precipitate out of solution).
Take 2 ml of clear urine in a test tube. If reaction of urine is neutral or alkaline, a drop of glacial acetic acid is added. Add 2-3 drops of sulphosalicylic acid (3 to 5%), and examine for turbidity against a dark background (Figure 821.3).
This test is more sensitive and reliable than boiling test.
False-positive test may occur due to gross hematuria, highly concentrated urine, radiographic contrast media, excess uric acid, tolbutamide, sulphonamides, salicylates, and penicillins.
False-negative test can occur with very dilute urine.
The test can detect albumin, hemoglobin, myoglobin, and Bence Jones proteins.
Comparison of reagent strip test and sulphosalicylic acid test is shown in Table 821.1.
Table 821.1 Comparison of two tests for proteinuria
Parameter Reagent strip test Sulphosalicylic acid test
1. Principle Colorimetric Acid precipitation
2. Proteins detected Albumin All (albumin, Bence Jones proteins, hemoglobin, myoglobin)
3. Sensitivity 5-10 mg/dl 20 mg/dl
4. Indicator Color change Turbidity
5. Type of test Screening Confirmatory
Indications for quantitative estimation of proteins in urine are:
  • Diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome
  • Detection of microalbuminuria or early diabetic nephropathy
  • To follow response to therapy in renal disease
Proteinuria >1500 mg/ 24 hours indicates glomerular disease; proteinuria >3500 mg/24 hours is called as nephrotic range proteinuria; in tubular, hemodynamic and post renal diseases, proteinuria is usually < 1500 mg/24 hours.
Grading of albuminuria is shown in Table 821.2. There are two methods for quantitation of proteins:
  1. Estimation of proteins in a 24-hour urine sample, and
  2. Estimation of protein/creatinine ratio in a random urine sample.
Table 821.2 Grading of albuminuria
Condition mg/24 hr mg/L mg/g creatinine μg/min μg/mg creatinine g/mol creatinine
Normal < 30 < 20 < 20 < 20 < 30 < 2.5
Microalbuminuria 30-300 20-200 20-300 20-200 30-300 2.5-25
Overt albuminuria > 300 > 200 > 300 > 200 > 300 > 25
1. Quantitative estimation of proteins in a 24-hour urine sample: Collection of a 24-hour sample is given earlier. Adequacy of sample is confirmed by calculating expected 24-hour urine creatinine excretion. Daily urinary creatinine excretion depends on muscle mass and remains relatively constant in an individual patient. In adult males creatinine excretion is 14-26 mg/kg/24 hours, while in women it is 11-20 mg/kg/24 hours. Various methods are available for quantitative estimation of proteins: Esbach’s albuminometer method, turbidimetric methods, biuret reaction, and immunologic methods.
2. Estimation of protein/creatinine ratio in a random urine sample: Because of the problem of incomplete collection of a 24-hour urine sample, many laboratories measure protein/creatinine ratio in a random urine sample. Normal protein/creatinine ratio is < 0.2. In low-grade proteinuria it is 0.2-1.0; in moderate, it is 1.0-3.5; and in nephrotic- range proteinuria it is > 3.5.
This is defined as urinary excretion of 30 to 300 mg/24 hours (or 2-20 mg/dl) of albumin in urine.
Significance of Microalbuminuria
  1. Microalbuminuria is considered as the earliest sign of renal damage in diabetes mellitus (diabetic nephropathy). It indicates increase in capillary permeability to albumin and denotes microvascular disease. Microalbuminuria precedes the development of diabetic nephropathy by a few years. If blood glucose level and hypertension are tightly controlled at this stage by aggressive treatment then progression to irreversible renal disease and subsequent renal failure can be delayed or prevented.
  2. Microalbuminuria is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus.
Detection of Microalbuminuria: Microalbuminuria cannot be detected by routine tests for proteinuria. Methods for detection include:
  • Measurement of albumin-creatinine ratio in a random urine sample
  • Measurement of albumin in an early morning or random urine sample
  • Measurement of albumin in a 24 hr sample
Test strips that screen for microalbuminuria are available commercially. Exact quantitation can be done by immunologic assays like radioimmunoassay or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Bence Jones proteins are monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (either κ or λ) that are synthesized by neoplastic plasma cells. Excess production of these light chains occurs in plasma cell dyscrasias like multiple myeloma and primary amyloidosis. Because of their low molecular weight and high concentration they are excreted in urine (overflow proteinuria).
Bence Jones proteins have a characteristic thermal behaviour. When heated, Bence Jones proteins precipitate at temperatures between 40°C to 60°C (other proteins precipitate between 60-70°C), and precipitate disappears on further heating at 85-100°C (while precipitate of other proteins does not). When cooled (60-85°C), there is reappearance of precipitate of Bence Jones proteins. This test, however, is not specific for Bence Jones proteins and both false-positive and -negative results can occur. This test has been replaced by protein electrophoresis of concentrated urine sample (Figure 821.4).
Figure 821.4 Urine protein electrophoresis showing heavy Bence Jones proteinuria
Figure 821.4 Urine protein electrophoresis showing heavy Bence Jones proteinuria (red arrow) along with loss of albumin and other low molecular weight proteins in urine
Further evaluation of persistent overt proteinuria is shown in Figure 821.5.
Figure 821.5 Evaluation of proteinuria
Figure 821.5 Evaluation of proteinuria.
Note: Quantitation of proteins and creatinine clearance are done in all patients with persistent proteinuria




CHOLERA is a specific infectious disease that affects the lower portion of the intestine and is char...

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