Glossary

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Temporal Arteritis

Chronic inflammation and damage of large arteries in the face and head; symptoms include headache, scalp tenderness, loss of vision, and facial pain.

Test

Also known as: Analyte


In the clinical laboratory, a substance from the body that is undergoing analysis.  In lay terms, often referred to as a "test."

Thrombocytopenia

Also known as: Thrombopenia


A decrease in the number of blood platelets

Thrombocytopenia

Also known as: Thrombopenia


A decrease in the number of blood platelets

Thromboembolism

Embolism— a condition in which material (tissue, fat, air, blood clot, etc.—called an embolus) travels through the bloodstream and then becomes lodged in a vein or artery and blocks the flow of blood through that blood vessel.

Thromboembolism—a blood clot (thrombus) that breaks free in the blood stream and blocks a blood vessel. This can occur in a vein (venous thromboembolism) or in an artery (arterial thromboembolism).

Thrombophilia

An inherited or acquired tendency to form blood clots within a vein or artery

Thrombosis

The formation of a blood clot within an artery or a vein.

Thrombotic Episode

The clinical signs and symptoms associated with a blood clot in a vein or artery. This can be a life-threatening event.

Thymus

Organ located behind the upper breastbone at the base of the neck that is part of the lymphatic and immune systems; disease-fighting white blood cells called T-cells develop and mature in the thymus before entering circulation. In humans, the thymus is normally active in childhood but becomes less active after puberty, eventually losing most immune activity by adulthood.

Thyroiditis

an inflamed thyroid

Timed Urine Sample

A sample of urine collected over a specified period of time; for a short collection (2 hours), you may be asked to do this at the laboratory. For longer collections (such as 12 hours or 24 hours), you will do this at home. At the beginning of the time period, empty your bladder and discard that urine. Note the time. Collect all urine voided for the specified period of time in the container provided. At the end of the time period, empty your bladder and ADD this urine to the container. Note the time. Bring all of the urine collected to the lab or doctor's office. If you miss collecting one or more voids, consult your doctor or the laboratory for further instructions. (See 24-hour urine sample)

Tissue
  • A collection of cells having a common purpose in the body, such as muscle tissue or kidney tissue.
  • A disposable piece of absorbent paper, used especially as a handkerchief or for cleaning the skin. (Tissue-Paper).
  • Rich or fine material of a delicate or gauzy texture.
  • An intricate structure or network made from a number of connected items.
Titer

In the clinical laboratory, titer is a unit of measurement. It is most often thought of as the lowest dilution of a substance in which a reaction takes place. It is usually expressed as a ratio (i.e., 1:20). For example, serum containing an antibody can be diluted with saline in a serial manner producing dilutions 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, etc. If the lowest dilution that a reaction can still be detected between the antibody and the antigen it is directed against is 1:20, then that is the result of the antibody titer.

Topical

Applied to the surface of the skin

Toxemia of pregnancy

Also known as: Preeclampsia


A condition during pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, protein in the urine, and fluid retention. If untreated, it can lead to eclampsia and convulsions that can be life-threatening to the mother and baby.

Toxemia of pregnancy

Also known as: Preeclampsia


A condition during pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, protein in the urine, and fluid retention. If untreated, it can lead to eclampsia and convulsions that can be life-threatening to the mother and baby.

Toxic megacolon

A rare but serious, potentially life-threatening condition in which all or part of the colon progressively swells and becomes gangrenous, with tissue death resulting from lack of blood supply

Toxicity

Extent or degree to which something is poisonous

Toxin

Generally, anything that injures, is destructive, or can cause death; specifically, a poisonous substance made within living cells or organisms (plants or animals); may also include some medicines if taken in large amounts and certain metals

Tracer

In radiology, radioactive isotope (e.g., iodine-131) introduced into the body to allow biological structures to be seen as part of diagnostic X-ray techniques.

Translocation

(v. translocate) In genetics, movement of one section of a chromosome to a different position on another chromosome resulting in abnormal chromosome structure

Transplantation

Process of removing cells, tissue, or organ(s) from one body and inserting them into another body, especially using surgery

Transudate

Fluid that has leaked into a body cavity, due to an imbalance between the pressure within blood vessels (which drives fluid out) and the amount of protein in blood (which keeps fluid in); it is a clear fluid with low protein concentration and a limited number of white blood cells.

Tubular adenoma

Also known as: Adenomatous polyp


Abnormal growth of cells that form the glands in the lining of the colon or rectum; while benign, may become cancerous over time

Tubule

A long, thin hollow tube; in the kidney, a structure that connects to the glomerulus and helps the kidney retain needed small substances (such as water, electrolytes, glucose, calcium) while allowing elimination of waste products. Its contents eventually drain into the collecting system of the kidney as urine.

Tumor

Also known as: Neoplasm


Growth of tissue characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation; benign or malignant, localized or invasive

Turner Syndrome

A disorder involving the X chromosomes in females. Normally, there are two functioning X chromosomes in every cell in the female body. In Turner syndrome, one of the X chromosomes is missing or is abnormal, or there are two normal X chromosomes present but in only some of the cells. Women with Turner syndrome usually have underdeveloped female sexual characteristics.

Tyrosine kinase

An enzyme that works by adding phosphate groups to various molecules, changing their function

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Drug used to treat certain types of cancer; it inhibits the action of tyrosine kinase, an enzyme involved in cell growth, thus impeding the growth of cancer cells.

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