Glossary

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Term Definition
Galactorrhea

Breast milk production that occurs without pregnancy

Ganglioside

Type of substance found on the surface of cells, particularly in the brain, that is important in cell-to-cell communication

Gene

Basic unit of genetic material; in humans, a segment of DNA on a chromosome that usually codes for the production of a specific protein

Gene expression

Properties exhibited by an organism due to genes present in cells

Gene Sequence

Section of genetic code; particular arrangement of nucleotides along a segment of DNA on a chromosome

Genetic Counseling

Process of determining the risk of a particular genetic disorder occurring within a family and providing information and advice based on that determination

Genome
The haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
  • the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism.
Genome

The total of a person's genetic information

Genotype

Specific combination of genes within a cell or cells

Germ cell

Reproductive cell that develops into a sperm in males and an egg in females; germ cells contain one-half of the normal complement of the 46 chromosomes from each parent.

Gestation

Period of development of a fetus between the time an egg is fertilized and birth

Gigantism

A condition in children resulting from excess growth hormone characterized by an abnormal growth of the long bones and increased size of feet and hands

Globulin

Collective term for most blood proteins other than albumin

Glomerulus

Plural: glomeruli; one of a number of specialized structures in the kidney, composed of loops of specialized capillaries that filter blood, allowing small substances to pass through towards the urine but preventing loss of larger proteins and blood cells.

Glycogen

The principal storage form of glucose found primarily in the liver and the muscles.

Goiter

An enlarged thyroid gland

Granuloma

Special form of chronic inflammation; often forms one or more nodules that can involve the skin, lymph nodes, lung, liver, spleen, or other organs. Granulomas often form in response to certain types of infection (especially to mycobacteria such as in tuberculosis and to fungi) or to foreign bodies, but sometimes have no known cause, as in sarcoidosis.

Gynecomastia

Enlargement of breast tissue in the male

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