INTERESTING FACTS ON BOTANY

Published in Botany
Wednesday, 28 June 2017 01:23

Pollination in Rafflesia
By flies/mites

Dispersal of seeds in Rafflesia
By Elephant

Smallest parasite
Arceuthobium minutissimum — It lives in stem of Pinus,

Rootless plants
Balanophora, Utricularia, Ceratophylium, Woiffia

Plantless roots
plants have only roots to perform assimilation/growth/reproduction e.g. Sapria, Podostemum, Arceuthobium, Rafflesia

Scindapsus (family Araceae)
First terrestrial and then becomes epiphyte

Arachis hypogea (Ground nut)
Flowering occurs outside soil and after fertilization, ovaries go into soil where fruit formation occurs. It is called Geocarpy and is due to auxin action.

Plant with Broadest leaves
Victoria amazonica, (Amazon lily) leaf diameter 1.5 to 1.8 m

Plant with Longest leaf
Raphia vinifera (10—15 m)

Largest (Tallest) angiosperm
Eucalyptus regnans (114 m)

Tallest Gymnosperm
Sequoiadenron sempervirens ( = Sequoia gigantea) Douglosfir or Californian red wood tree

Largest flower
Rafflesia arnoldi ( 1 mt in dia, wt 7 kg) It is a root parasite on Tetrastigma roots

Largest inflorescence
Amorphophallus titanum (5.5 m) may be upto 12 m in Agave

Largest cotyledons
Capsella bursa pestoris (Shepherd’s purse)

Biggest fruit
Lodoicea maldivica (Double coconut wt 6 kg)

Largest diameter of a tree
Taxodium mucronatum (100—125 ft) Cestanea (167 feet)

Strongest wood used to keep mummies
Taxodium mucronatum (a gymnosperm)

Maximum number of chromosomes, plant
Ophioglossum reticulatum (2n = 1262)

Animal
Aulacantha Radiolarians (2n = 1600)

Smallest Archegonium is found in
Angiosperms

Largest Archegonium is found in
Mosses

Smallest gametophyte plant
Chiamydomonas

Largest gametopilytic plant
Dasownia

Smallest pollen grain (2.5 t)
Myosotis

Largest pollen grain (250 j.t)
Mirabilis

Biggest ovule
Cycas thourasii (7 cm in length)

Biggest sperm
Cycas

Biggest egg
Cycas

Largest seed
Lodoicea maidivica

Maximum number of chromosomes in Angiospérms
Poa litorosa 2n = 266

Smallest chromosome
An alga (0.025 rim)

Largest chromosome
Trillium govanianuin (30 jim)

Minimum number of chromosomes - Plant
Mucor, Porphyra (n = 2)

Minimum number of chromosomes - Animal
Ascaris (2n = 2)

Highest yielding cereal (grain) crop
Maize

Largest and widest cultivated crop
Rice (Oryza sativ)

Most advanced family
Compositae in dicots and gramineae in monocots

Billiards ball is made
from vegetable (Ivory) Palm (Phvtelephas microcarpa)

Lightest wood
Balsa (Ochrorna Pyramidale) sp. gr. 00444

Heaviest wood of world
Guaicum officinale ( sp. gr. I .49 wt. 93 lb/cubic feet

Fire proof wood (wood without resin)
Sequoia dendron

Maximum life span of a tree
Macrozamia (10000 years), Dracaena (8000 years)

Largest spreading tree
Ficus bengulensis

Largest leaf in diameter
Victoria arnazonica (V. regia) Amazon lily dia. (5—6 ft)

Longest leaf
Raphia vinifera 30—50 ft

Longest Botanic Garden of World
Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, England

First Plant taxonomist
Caesalpinio

World’s largest herbarium
Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, England

<< Previous

INTERESTING FACTS ON BOTANY

Published in Botany
Tuesday, 27 June 2017 17:19

National flower of Pakistan
Jasmine (Jasminum)

National flower of London
Rose

National fruit of Pakistan and India
Mango (Mangifera indica)

A plant with only 2 leaves
Welwitschai mirabilis (a gymnosperm)

Maiden Hair moss
Pogonatum

Maiden hair fern
Adiantum capillusveneris

Grasses of sea
Diatoms

Children of sea
Algae

Forest of sea
Sea weeds (keips)

Joker of plant kingdom
Mycoplasma (PPLO)

Jewels of plant kingdom
Desmids (algae)

A gift of old world to new world
Wheat (Tritium)

A gift of new world to old world
Maize (Zea Mays)

Oldest cultivated crop
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Kalpvriksha (Tree of heaven)
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera)

First land inhabiting plants
Bryophytes

Red Sea
Due to blue green alga Trichondesmium erythreum

Most commonly seen fungi
Basidiomycetes

Drosophila of plant kingdom
Neurospora crassa (red/pink Bread mould)

Guinea pig of microbiology and weed of laboratories
Aspergillus niger-green mold

Resupination
Ovary rotates by 1800 in orchids

Major source of sugar in world
Beet roots

Phytotron
A device in which plants are grown in controlled conditions.

Tillandsw usneoids
Grows on telegraphic wires

Ermarki and Ranunculus lobatus
Plants recorded at higher altitude (21000 ft)

Smallest Angiosperm
Woiffia arrhiza inch long rootless.

Smallest flower
Woiffia microscopica (duck weed) 0. 1 mm

Smallest seed
Orchids (weighs 0.004 mg)

Smallest Gymnosperm
Zamina pygmea (25 cm tall)

Smallest acellular oganisms 
Mycoplasma galliseptium (0.3—0.5 μL)

Minimum number of chromosomes in Angiosperms and in an eukaryote
Haplopappus gracilis 2n = 4

Smallest Algae
Chalamydomonas (Green alga)

Largest Algae
Macrocvstis (Brown Alga — kelp) upto 60 mt.

Smallest fungi
Yeast

Largest fungi
Ganoderma (A wood fungus) 1 mt. Fomes (56 x 37’)

Smallest bryophyte
Zoopsis, Ephemerum (Pigmy moss)

Largest bryophyte
Dawsonia, Fontinalis (brook moss)

Smallest pteridophyte
Azolla

Largest pteridophyte
Treefem (Cyathaea) 20 mt. Aisphila (60 feet)

marine angiosperm
zostera, Thalassa

Walking fern
Adianturn caudatum

Sun fern
Pteris

Aquatic ferns
Azolla, Marsilea, Salvinia

Bhojpatra
Betula utilis — Bark of this plant was used to write manuscript in ancient times.

Saprophytic angiosperms
Wullshcleigellia, Neottia (Bird’s nest orchid), Monotrapa (Indian pipe plant) Carallorhiza etc. absorb humus through fungi

Red Data Book
A book containing information of endangered plant and animals

Green Data Book
A book with list of rare plants growing in protected areas like gardens.

Coptis
A stemless herb

Sulphur shower
Liberation of pollen grain in large amount by pine trees.

Killer weed
Parthenium hysterophorus (called- congress or carrot grass, belongs to family compositae)

Next >>

LARVAE OF PORIFERA, COELENTERATA AND PLATY HELMENTHES

Published in Zoology
Tuesday, 27 June 2017 13:26
LARVAE OF PORIFERA
 
1. Parenchymula (Stereo- gastrula) - Leucosolenia
2. Rhagon - Higher sponges
3. Amphiblastula - Sycon
 
Sycon thumb15

LARVAE OF COELENTERATA
 
1. Planula - Obelia, Sea Anemone
 
Obelia planula larva thumb9
 
2. Ephyra - Aurelia (Jelly fish)
 
ephyra larvae thumb15
 
3. Actinula - Some hydrozoan
4. Anthocynathus - Coral fungia
 
Coral fungia thumb15
 
5. Conaria - Velella
6. Hydratubia - Aurelia
 
Aurelia ephyra larvae thumb11
 
LARVAE OF PLATYHELMENTHES
 
1. Muller’s Larva - Polycladida of Turbellaria
2. Liverfiuke (Fasciola) Miracidium - L Platyhelminths
3. Redia - Liverfiuke (Fasciola)
4. Sporocyst - Liverfiuke (Fasciola)
5. Cercaria - Liverfiuke (Fasciola)

MOST PRIMITIVE ANIMALS

Published in Zoology
Tuesday, 27 June 2017 01:16
Most primitive primate
Lemur
 
Lemurprimitiveprimate8
 
Most primitive mollusc
Chaetoderma
 
chaetoderma intermedium
 
Most primitive Arthropod
Peripatus
 
peripatusprimitiveArthropod2
 
Most primitive Annelida
Polygordius
 
Polygordiusprimitiveannelida1
 
Most primitive fish
Climatius
 
Climatiusprimitivefish1
 
Most primitive Helminth
Planaria
 
PlanariaprimitiveHelminth1
 
Most primitive reptile
Sphenodon
 
primitivereptileSphenodontuatara2
 
Most primitive Mammal
Echidna
 
echidnaprimitivemammal1
 
Most primitive Ape
Gibbon
 
Gibbonprimitiveape1

FASTEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD

Published in Zoology
Sunday, 25 June 2017 21:42
  • Fastest Mammal — Cheetah (Actiononyx jubatus)
  • Fastest Bird — Spine tailed shift of Japan (fastest flying animal in the world)
  • Fastest Penguin — Swimmer Penguin
  • Fastest snake — Momba (Africa)
  • Fastest fish — Sail fish
  • Fastest wing beat in Insect — Foripomyla
  • Fastest flying insect — Deer bot fly
  • Fastest Protozoan — Monas
  • Fastest wing beat — Humming bird
  • Fastest reproducing protozoan — Glaucoma (six generation in 24 hours)
  • Fastest running reptile — Cnemidophorus

"LARGEST" FACTS IN ZOOLOGY

Published in Zoology
Sunday, 25 June 2017 01:17
  • Largest mammal — Blue Whale
  • Heaviest mammal — Blue whale
  • Largest Carnivora Kodiak — Beer of Australia and Alaska
  • Largest Chiroptera — Pteropus
  • Largest Primate — Gorilla
  • Largest Ape — Gorilla
  • Largest Terrestrial Bird — Ostrich
  • Largest Wing span — Albatross
  • Largest living reptile — Turtle
  • Largest lizard — Varanus
  • Largest snake — Python
  • Largest frog — Rana goliath (Africa)
  • Largest fish — Rhinodon typus (1 8m, 9000 ibs)
  • Largest carnivore fish — White shark
  • Largest coral reef — Great barrier reef
  • Largest breed of dog — St Bernard 130 kg
  • Largest invertebrate — Giant squid
  • Largest bone — Femur (In Frog Tibiofibla)
  • Largest Muscle — Sertorisu (Buttock gluteus maximum)
  • Largest Nerve — Vagus
  • Largest cell — Egg of Ostrich
  • Tallest Mammal — Giraffe
  • Tallest poriferan — Poterian (4 feet)
  • Largest porifer — Spheciospongia vesparium (3.5 feet)
  • Longest cell — Nerve cell (Neuron)
  • Largest live fish — Sturgeon
  • Largest Egg producing fish — Mala mala
  • Largest mammal — Blue Whale Heaviest mammal — Blue whale
  • Largest Camivora Kodiak — Beer of Australia and Alaska
  • Largest R.B.C. in mammal — Elephant
  • Largest Gland — Liver
  • Largest star fish — Pycnopodia
  • Largest bivalvia — Tridacna
  • Largest Gastropod — Hermifurcus
  • Largest Shell — Bivalva giant clam
  • Largest Insect — Ant of Africa (Dinopohtera)
  • Largest Tick — Ambloyma
  • Largest Coelenteratra — Cyanea (jelly fishes)
  • Largest gestation period — Elephant
  • Largest web — Nephila
  • Largest egg — Ostrich
  • Largest vein — Inferior venacava
  • Largest fang — Gabbon viper tropical
  • Largest land mammal — Elephant
  • Largest eye (Mammal) — Horse
  • Largest Eye (Mollusc) — Squid (15 inches)
  • Largest arachnid — Giant spider
  • Largest Insect — Golianthus (Africa)
  • Largest zoo of World — Kruger (South Africa)
  • Most venomous sea snake  Hydrophis
  • Most venomous snake of world — Peninsular tiger snake of Australia.
  • Largest R.B.C. — Amphiuma
  • Largest virus — Pox virus

FACTS OF ANIMAL WORLD

Published in Zoology
Saturday, 24 June 2017 22:21

Most Intelligent Hominid
Man (Homo sapiens)

Second Most Intelligent Mammal
Dolphin

Most Intelligent ape
Chimpanzee

Heaviest bony fish
Pangarianodon

Heaviest crab
Pseudocarsinus

Loudest arthropod
Male cicada

Hibernating Mammal
Bat, Squirrel, Wood chink

Hibernating bird
Poor will

Fish with four eyes
Ambleps

Living fossil arthropod
Limulus

Living fossil fish
Latimaria

Living fossil reptile
Sphenodon

Longest distance flying birds
Stemaparadisaea (Arctic tern). it covers 22,530 kms during migration.

Heaviest Bird of Prey
Vulture gryphus.

Fastest swimmer bird
Pygoscellus papua (gento penguin)

Largest egg bird
Struthio camelus (175 mm length, capacity)

Smallest egg bird
Mellisuga minima - humming bird

National Animal of Australia
Kangaroo

National Animal of Newzealand
Kiwi

National Animal of Pakistan
Markhor

Sharpest Memory animal
Elephant

Ship of Desert
Camel

Horse of river
Hippopotamus

Tree rat
Vendiluria live in nest of bird

Blood swelling bat
Vampire bat

Most powerful Electric fish
Electrophorous electrius (370—500 volts)

Light proudcing fish
Photoble, Phaar -on Malacocephalus etc.

Sound proudcing fish
Malapterurus, Tetradon etc.

Highest Flier Birds
Cygnus cygnus-Swan Height 27,000 feet.

Largest sea bird
Diomedia epomorphora (wing stretch 80—125 inches)

Deepest Diver bird
Apteno dytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)

Most air borne bird (Common swift)
Apus apus -9 months in air in a year.

OVIPAROUS MAMMALS AND SPECIAL VIVIPAROUS ANIMALS

Published in Zoology
Friday, 23 June 2017 01:02
  • Viviparous Arthropod — Scorpion
  • Viviparous urodela — Salamendra atra
  • Viviparous Salamender — Salamandra atra
  • Viviparous anura (Frog) — Nectophry noides
  • Viviparous Apoda — Thyphonectus
  • Viviparous fish — Scoliodon
  • Viviparous Reptile — Phrynosoma
  • Viviparous snake — Vipera crusseli and sea snake
  • Oviviparous Mammal — Kangaroo
  • Oviparous mammal — Echidna, Duck Bill Platypus

LARVAES OF ANIMALS

Published in Zoology
Friday, 23 June 2017 00:24
NEMATHEHELMETHIS LARVAE
 
  • Filariforrn (Roundworm) is larvae of Ancylostoma (Hookworm)
  • Microfilariae is larvae of Wuchereria (Filarial worm)
  • Juvenileis larvae of Ascaris
  • Rhabditiformis larvae of Wuchereria Ascaris
    Also read special oviparous mammals
 
ANNELIDA LARVAE
 
  • Trochophoreis larvae of Nereis (Sandworm)
 
ARTHROPODA LARVAE
 
  • Caterpillar is larvae of Butterfly, Moth, Silkworm
  • Red tailed larva is larvae of Dipteran
  • Maggot or Gentle is larvae of Housefly
  • Cypris is larvae of Ship barnacle (Lpas)
  • Nauplius is larvae of Prawn (Palaemon)
  • Megalopa is larvae of Crab
  • Kentrogen is larvae of Some crustaceans
  • Chrysalis is larvae of Pupa of Butterflies
  • Antlered is larvae of Caterpillar
  • Wriggler is larvae of Mosquitoes
  • Grub is larvae of Beetles and Honeybee
  • Glaucothoea is larvae of Hermit Crab
  • Alima is larvae of Squilla
  • Mysis is larvae of Prawn
  • Schizopod is larvae of Lobsters
  • Nauplius is larvae of Crustacean

MOLLUSCA LARVAE
 
  • Glochidium is larvae of Water mussel — Unio
  • Veliger is larvae of Some gastropods
  • Trocophore is larvae of Some molluscs
 
ECHINODERMAT LARVAE
 
  • Auricularia is larvae of Sea cucumber (Holothuria)
  • Pluteus is larvae of Sea urchin Brittle star
  • Branchiolaria is larvae of Starfish
  • Dololaria is larvae of Holothurians
  • Bipinnaria is larvae of Asterias (Starfish)
  • Ophiopluteus is larvae of Echinoderm
  • Dipleura is larvae of Echinoderm

HEMICHORDATA LARVAE
 
  • Tornaria is larvae of Balanogiossus
 
CHORDATA LARVAE
 
  • Ascidian tadpole is larvae of Herdmania
  • Tadpole  is larvae of Frog
  • Acaronurus is larvae of Acanthurodian
  • Ammocoete is larvae of Petromyzon
  • Axolotl is larvae of Ambystoma
  • Leptocephalus is larvae of Anguilla (Eel)

SMALLEST ANIMALS

Published in Zoology
Thursday, 22 June 2017 18:58
  • Smallest MammalShrew
  • Smallest BirdHumming bird of cuba (5.5 cm)
  • Smallest apeGibbon
  • Smallest boneStapes
  • Smallest Cranial NerveAbducens
  • Smallest R.B.C.Musk Deer (2.5 tm)
  • Smallest primateLemur
  • Smallest snakeLepto typhlops
  • Smallest SalamandraDesmograthus
  • Smallest freshwater fishPandaka
  • Smallest marine fishGoby fish 8-10 mm in length
  • Smallest InsectMymer
  • Smallest ProtozoanBaberia
  • Smallest MuscleArrector pilli or stapedius muscle
  • Smallest AnnelidChaetogaster
  • Smallest virusFoot mouth virus of cattle
  • Smallest PhylumPorifera
  • Smallest classAmphibia
  • Smallest cellSquamulla
  • Smallest bacteriaDialister
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