- End replication problem in eukaryotes accounts for loss of 20 base pairs per cell division.
- Oxidative stress accounts for loss of 50-100 base pairs per cell division.
A is a biology symbol for Androecium
Angstrom ( = 0.0001 of a micron)
ADP is a biological symbol for Adenosine diphosphate
Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome
Adenosine mono phosphate
76.00 cm of Hg=1.Olx 1O Pa.
Autonomic Nervous system
Acoustic test facility
Adreno cortico trophic hormone
5 Bromo uracil
Biochemical oxygen demand
Chemical Oxygen demand
Central inland fisheries research institute
Diffusion pressure deficit
Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus Vaccine
Deoxyribose nucleic acid
Electro paramagnetic resonance
Embden. Meyerhof Parnas pathway
Enzyme linked Immuno Sorbant
Epi Presence of epicalyx
Energy transfer system
Follicle stimulating hormone
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
Flavin mono nucleotide
F2 -Second filial generation.
Flavin idenine dinucleotide (reduced)
F1 -First Filial generation.
Genetically Modified Foad
Genetically modified Organisms
Human cell leukaemia virus III
Human immuno deficiency virus
Interstitial cells stimulating hormone
Indole—3— acetic acid
International council for research in Agroforest
1 x 1O dynes
Messenger Ribose Nucleic acid
1 microlitre (ml)
1 Micrometre (mm)
Melanocyte stimulating hormone
Nuclear magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)
Naphthalene acetic acid.
Oral Police Vaccine
Phosphoenol pyruvic acid
Pigment system II
Protein energy malnutrition
Protein inhibiting hormone
Pleuro pneumonia-like organisms
Rehal Plasma flow
- It gives strength to the cell and forms cytoskeleton.
- Granular endoplasmic reticulum will produce proteins.
- Agranular endoplasmic reticulum will produce lipids.
- It forms the work bench for many biochemical reactions in the cell.
- In the central matrix of mitochondria respiratory enzymes are present. The take up Krebs cycle reactions.
- In the inner membrane of mitochondria electron transport enzymes are present.
- Mitochondria helps in the oxidation of the food material and liberates energy , Hence they are called power houses of cell.
- In the mitochondria a circular DNA is present. Hence mitochondria is also c. led semi autonomous body.
- Lysosome is helpful in the digestion of the food.
- At starvation lysosome will digest cell organelles.
- Lysosome can dissolve the cell. It is called suicide. Henc lysosomes are called suicidal bags of cells.
|Year||Names of contributor||Cytological contribution|
|1824||R.J.H. Dutrochet||Showed that all animals and plants composed of cells.|
|1826||Turpin||Reported the occurrence of cell division.|
|1831||R. Brown||Described the nucleus|
|1835||Felix Dujardin||Described protoplasm as ("Sarcode")|
|1838||M.J.Schleiden||Proposed "Cell theory"|
|1839||T.Schwann||Applied "Cell theory" to animals.|
|1840||J.E. Purkinje||Named the cell contents as Protoplasm.|
|1855||R.Virchow||Stated that all cells arise from pre-existing cell.|
|1863||Waldeyer||Chromosomes of cell|
|1871||F. Miescher||discovered nucleo-protein and nucleic acid.|
|1882||Strasburger||described mitosis in plant cells|
|1887||E.Van Benden||discovered centrioles.|
|1888||T.Boweri||described the centrioles.|
|1888||Waldeyer||Introduced the term chromosome.|
|1902||W.S.Sutton||Proposed "the chromosome theory" heredity.|
|1905||J.B.Farmer along with J.E.Moore.||Coined the term meiosis|
|1943||A.Claude||Isolated cell components like ribosomes, mitochondria and nuclei|
|1952||C. Du Duve||Identified hysosomes.|
|1953||J.D.Watson and F.H.C. Crick||Proposed the double helixmodel for the DNA molecule.|
|1959||S.Ochoa||Synthesis of polyribonuclotide in vitro.|
|1959||A.Kornberg||Synthesis of polydeoxiri-|
|1968||M.W.Nirenberg and H.G.Khorana.||Triplet genetic code.|
|1968||R.H.HoIley||discovery of base sequence of RNA|
Arthrology — Study of joints.
Agriology — Study of customs of primitive man.
Aphidology — Study of aphids (plant lice).
Aerobiology — Study of flying organisms in relation with other flying objects.
Agronomy — The management of farms and the science of crop production is called agronomy.
Anthropology — The science of man and mankind including his physical and mental constitution, cultural development and social conditions of present and past is called anthropology.
Anthology — It is a branch of biology study of flowers.
Agrostology — It is the study of grasses.
Acarology — Study of order acarina comprising ticks and mites.
Acrology — Study of ticks and mites is called acrology.
Agriology — It is the comparative study of tribal customs.
Agrology — It is the soil sciecne dealing with production of crops.
Andrology — It is the study of male reproductive organs.
Arboriculture — Cultivation of trees and shrubs is called arboriculture.
Agriculture — It deals with the cultivation of crops and the improved methods of farming.
Actinobiology — Study of radiation effect on living organisms.
Angiology — It is a biology branch Study of blood vessels.
Bionformatics — It is branch of science concerned with development and application of computing system and technology in order to make novel observation about biological processes.
Biotechnology — It is the controlled use of biological agents such as micro-organisms or cellular components for beneficial use.
Breeding biology — Breeding is art and science of changing and improving the heredity of plant and animals.
Biochemistry — Study of chemical aspect of living organims is termed biochemistry.
Batrachology — It is the study of frog.
Biocimatology — The study of climatic effects on biological processes and organisms.
Biometrology — Study of effects of atmospheric changes on living organisms.
Bionics — It is study of problem solving by humans, animals and its technical application.
Bacteriology — It is the study of bacteria.
Cell Biology — The study of structure, functions, reproduction, energy dynamics, transport mechanism and life history of cell is called cell biology.
Cryobiology — It is the study of effect of low temperature on living organisms.
Chirology — It deals with communication system with deaf and mute by sign languages.
Chromatology — Study of pigments.
Ctetology — Study of acquired characters of organisms.
Chromatology — It is the science of colours.
Cosmology — Sciecne of structure and evolution of universe.
Conchology — Study of shells.
Chondrology — Study of cartilage.
Craniology — Study of skull.
Cardiology — Study of heart.
Dysteleology — It is the study of appearance of vestigial organs due to evolution.
Dendrology — It is the study of shrubs and trees.
Dermatology — Study of skin.
Developmental Morphology — It deals with the developmental aspects of plants.
Embryology — It deals with the study of the stages of an organism that occur immediately after fertilization.
Ecology — It is the study of inter—relationship between living organisms and their environment.
Ethology — Study of animal behaviour and conditions of animals
Eugenics — It is the science dealing with the improvement of human race through application of the laws of heredity
Exobiology — The study of kind of life that may exist in outer space is called exobiology
Etiology — It is the study of causes of diseases.
Ecobiology — Study of adapations in relation to habitat.
Epigenetics — It is the study of mechanisms by which genes and, their products bring about phenotypic expression.
Ethnology — It is science dealing with different races of man kind.
Economic Botany — It deals with the study of various uses of plants and their products.
Environmental management — It is the assessment of environment, finding out the ways and means for remedy of environmental problems and for conservation of biodiversity so as to maintain the balance in nature. Forensic science — Application of science for identification of various facts about blood groups, hair, poisons, narcotics, finger prints, DNA finger printing for solving civilian and criminal cases.
Food technology — Study of processing and preservation of food is called food technology.
Forestry or silviculture — It deals with the development of forests and the utilization of their products.
Gynaecology — Study of female reproductive organs.
Gerontology — It is a branch of developmental biology which deals with the study of ageing.
Genetics — It is the study of genes heredity and variations.
Genecology — Study of genetical make up of species or population in relation to habitat.
Genetic engineering — The methods of artificial synthesis dna
Hypnology — Science dealing with sleep including the one from hypnosis.
Helminthology — Study of parasitic worms.
Hepatology — Study of liver.
Haematology — Study of blood.
Histology — The study of the structure and chemical composition of animal and plant tissue as related to the function.
heredity — It is the study of inheritance of characters from parents to offspring.
Ichthyology — Study of fishes or study of fishes and amphibians.
Internal Morphology — It deals with the internal structure of plant parts and also called anatomy.
Ichnology — It is a branch of paleontology which deals with fossil foot prints.
Kalology — Study of human beauty.
Lepidepteriology — Study of butterflies and moths.
Leprology — It is the study of leprosy its cause and cure.
Limnology — Study of fresh water ecology/study of snails.
Molecular Biology — Study of living organisms at the molecular level.
Morphology — It deals with the study of form and structure of animals.
Mammology — Study of mammals
Microbiology — Study of microscopic organisms.
Malariology — Study of malaria.
Myremecology — Study of ants is termed myremecology.
Malacology — Study of molluscs.
Myology (Sarcology) — Study of muscles.
Mastology — Study of breast including teats is called mastology.
Mycology — It is the study of fungi.
Neinatology — Study of nematodes (round worms).
Nephrology — Study of kidney.
Neonatalogy — It is science of study of new borns up to twenty eight days in humans.
Neurology — Study of nervous system.
Nidology — Study of nests of birds.
Ornithology — Study of birds.
Ophthalmology — Study of eyes.
Osteology — Study of bones
Organocology — Study of development of organs under embryology.
Olericulture — Its the branch of agriculture dealing with vegetables
Physiology — Study of functions of various parts of body is called physiology.
Parasitology — Study of parasites.
Protozoology — Study of unicellular organisms. i.e.Protozoa Characters
Parazoology — Study of sponges.
Pathology — Nature, symptoms, causes, effects, prevention and suggestive cure of disease is called pathology.
Plant physiology — It is the study of various functional aspects or life processes of the plants.
Plant taxonomy — It is the study of identification, nomenclature and classification of plants.
Palaeobotany — It is the study of fossils of prehistoric plants.
Plant ecology — The study of relationship of plants with the environment is termed plant ecology.
Plant geography — The study of distribution of plants over the surface of earth.
Phycology — It is the study of algae.
Plant pathology — It is the study of plant diseases, their causes, symptoms and methods of control.
Pteridology — It is the study of pteridophytes.
Palynology — It is the study of pollen grains and sperms.
Protology — It is the study of hind gut including rectum and anus.
Physiotherapy — Treatment of defects by physical remedies is called physiotherapy.
Protistology — It is the study of protists.
Phenology — Study of periodicity phenomenon of organisms e.g. Bird Migration.
Pharmacology — It is the study of medicine or drug plants.
Pharmacognsy — It is the scientific study of structural, physical, chemical and sensory characters of plants, cultivation, collection and other particulars relating to their uses.
Pharmacology — Study of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms.
Phrenology — Study of mental faculties of brain including feelings.
Plant Morphology — Study of form and structure of plant organ is called morphology.
Serology — Study of serum ; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood.
Splanchnology — Study of visceral cavity and its organs.
Soil Science — The study of soil involving its structure, type and dynamics is called soil science.
Space biology — It is the study of problem of survival living organisms in outer space.
Serpentology (Ophiology) — Study of snakes.
Saurology — Study of lizards.
Sitology — Science of food, diet and nutrition.
Stomatology — It is the study of foregut.
Speciology — Study of species.
Sarcology — It is branch of anatomy which deals with fleshy parts of body.
Spelaeology — Study of caves and cave life.
Teratology — lt is a branch of developmental biology which deals with the study of developmental abnormalities during embryonic stages.
Taxonomy — It deals with the principles of identification, nomenclature and classification of the animals.
Tectology — It is the study of structural organization animals.
Traumatology — Study of injuries and wounds.
Virology — It is the study of viruses.
Xenology — It is the study of hosts in relation to life history of parasites.
Zoogeography — It is the study of distribution of animals in different geographic regions.
Zoopathology — Study of diseases of animals.
Zoophytology — Study of drifting organisms such as diatoms.
Zymology — Study of fermentation is called zymology.
Zoonosology — it is the study of handicapped animals.
Read more: Breathtaking digital images probe human anatomy like never before
In Section II, chapters related to production of metal PET (positron emission tomography) radioisotopes, 3-dimensional and CT (computed tomography) scan, SS nuclear medicine in imaging, cancer diagnose and treatments have been included. The subject matter will by highly useful to the medical and paramedical staff in hospitals, as well as researchers and scholars in the field of nuclear medicine medical physics and nuclear bio-chemistry etc.
The book is visually exciting, and written in an interesting and accessible manner while maintaining scientific rigour. Highlighted boxes within the text link the theory to actual clinical laboratory practice for example, the histopathology chapter includes a illustrated flow chart of the progress of a specimen through the histopathology lab, so that students can actually see how the specimen reception/inking/cut-up/ cassette/block/section/stain system works, with an emphasis on the safety procedures that ensure specimens are not confused).