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COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Published in Zoology
Friday, 14 July 2017 19:56
Calotes is  called as garden lizard. It is a poikilothermic terrestrial reptile. Columba is commonly called as pigeon, being a bird it is  adapted for aerial mode of life. Oryctolagus (rabbit) is an herbivorous mammal. The blood circulation in these vertebrates is of closed type. The blood vessels which carry blood from the heart to the various parts of the body are known as arteries The walls of the arteries are thick and do not possess valves. The pure blood flows in the arteries. However the arteries which carry blood from the heart to the respiratory organs possess deoxygenated blood. The blood has high pressure in the arteries. Arteries ends by means of blood capillaries in the tissues. The different arteries associated in the circulation of blood form a system which is called as Arterial System.
 
In the above three vertebrates, the arteries arise differently but carry blood from the heart to the various parts of the body.
 
 
Calotes (Garden Lizard) Columba (Pigeon) Oryctolagus (Rabbit)
1. Arterial system consists of a pair of systemic arches and a pulmonary arch. 1. Arterial system consists of two arches-Right sys­temic arch and pulmonary arch. The right systemic arch is called Right Aortic arch. 1. Aiterial system con­sists of two arches, left systemic arch and pulmonary arch. The left systemic arch is known as Left aortic arch
2. The systemic arches and the pulmonary arch arise from the dorsal and ventral parts of the single ventricle. All the three arches are connected by connective tissue. 2. Right aortic arch arises from the left ventricle and pulmonary arch arises from the right ventricle. 2. Left aortic arch airses from the left ventricle and the pulmonary arch arises from the right ventricle.
3. The carotid branch of each side is connected with systemic arch by a vessel, 'Ductus caroticus'. 3. Ductus caroticus is absent. 3. Same is absent.
4. The subclavian arteries arise from the right systemic arch. 4.The right & left carotid and sub clavian arteries originate from the respective innominate arteries, ises. 4. The right carotid and sub clavian arteries arise from the innominate artery. But the left carotid and sub calvian arteries originate directly from the right aortic arch
5. Inter cestal arteries are present. 5. Same are present. 5. Same are present.
6. It is absent. 6. Pectoral artery supplies blood to the muscles of the wings. 6. It is absent.
7. Coeliac artery and anterior mesenteric artery arise separately from the dorsal from the dorsal aorta. 7. Same in pigeon. 7. Same in rabbit.
8. It is absent. 8. It is absent. 8. Phronic artery supplies blood to the muscles of the Diaphragm.
9. A pair of gonadial arteries are present. 9. From the anterior renal arteries the gonadial arteries are formed. 9. Paired Gonadial arteries arise directly from the dorsal arch.
10. Unpaired posterior mesenteric artery is present. 10. Same is present in pigeon. 10. Same is present in rabbit.
11. Three pairs of renal arteries arise from the dorsal aorta. 11. The anterior renal arteries develop from the dorsal aorta. But middle & posterior renal arteries arise from the sciatic artery of each side. 11. A pair of renal arteries arise from the dorsal aorta.
12. Common Iliac ar­teries are formed from the dorsal aor­ta. 12. The internal iliac arteries are formed from the dorsal aorta. 12. Iliolumbar arteries arise from the dorsal aorta.
13. The caudal artery is the terminal portion of the dorsal aorta to the tail. 13. The caudal artery the terminal portion of the dorsal aorta to the tail. 13. The caudal artery is the continuation of the dorsal aorta to the tail.
14. The pulmonary arteries carry blood from right part of the single ventricle to theright and left lungs. 14. Each pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the respective lung for purification. 14. The pulmonary artery which arises from the right ventricle divides into two branches and carry deoxygenated blood to the respective lungs.
15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart. 15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart of bird. 15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart.

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