COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF FISH (SCOLIODON) AND FROG (RANA)

Published in Zoology
Friday, 14 July 2017 23:30
Scoliodon ( Shark) is a poikilothermic animal. It is a cartilaginous fish. Frog ( Rana) is a cold blooded and amphibious animal. The circulation of blood is carried by closed vessels. The vessels which supply blood to the various organs of the body are known as arteries as the net work of arteries form the Arterial system. The walls of arteries are thick and lumen is narrow. The blood pressure is high in the arteries. Arteries do not possess valves. The arteries end in capillaries. Arteries deeply seated in the body. Mostly arteries contain oxygenated blood. A few arteries also carry deoxygenated blood to the respiratory organs (either gills or lungs) for purification.
 
 
Scoliodon (Fish) Rana (Frog)
1. The arterial system consists of a ventral aorta, afferent and efferent branchials, dorsal aorta, and its branches and hypobranchials. 1. The arterial system consists of a truncus arteriosus, three pairs of aortic arches and the dorsal aorta & its branches.
2. Five pairs afferent branchial arteries are present. 2. Absent.
3. Efferent branchial system is associated with gill-slits along with the respective arteries. 3. Absent.
4. The arteries to the head are given off from the first pair of epibranchials and by the branches of dorsal aorta carotid labyrinth is absent. 4.The head is supplied blood by the branches. Carotid arteries arising from the truncus arteriosus. Carotid labyrinth is present.
5. Parietal arteries are present. 5. Parietal arteries are absent.
6. Hypobranchial plexus is present. 6. It is absent.
7. Dorsal aorta is formed by the union of epibranchial arteries of both the right and left sides. 7. The second branches of turncus, the systemic arches of the left and right sides unite to form the dorsal aorta.
8. Subclavian arteries arise from the dorsal aorta. 8. Sub clavian artery arises from each systemic arch.
9. Absent. 9. Occipito-vertebral artery arises from the systemic arch of each side.
10. Coeliaco-mesenteric artery aris­es from behind the union of the four pairs of epibranchials. 10. Coeliaco-mesenteric artery arises from the junction of the two system¬ic arches.
11. Just below the Coeliaco-mesen­teric artery, lienogastric artery arises. 11. Lie no gastric artery is absent.
12. The parietal artery gives off four pairs renal arteries. 12. Four pairs of renal arteries arise directly from the dorsal aorta.
13. Gonadial (Spermatic or ovari­an) artery arises from the lieno ­gastric artery. 13. Gonadial arteries arise directly from the first pair of renal arteries.
14. Dorsal aorta terminates into caudal artery. 14. C-iudal artery is absent.
15. Pulmo cutaneous arch is absent. 15. The third branch of truncus is the pulmo-cutaneous arch which is divided into pulmonary and cutanecious arteries.
 
The heart of fish possess venous blood and blood passes through the heart only once in a complete circuit. But in frog the heart receives both oxygenated and venous blood and the circulation is bi circuit.
 
The fish is an aquatic animal and possesses five pairs of gills. The blood is supplied by pairs of afferent bronchial arteries and is collected by nine pairs of efferent bronchial arteries. In frog however, the respiratory organs are a pair of lungs (skin & buccal cavity also help in respiration) which are supplied by a pair of pulmonary arteries.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF RABBIT AND FROG

Published in Zoology
Monday, 22 May 2017 22:40
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF MAMMAL (RABBIT) AND AMPHIBIAN (FROG)

Rabbit - Arterial System

Frog - Arterial System

1. The blood to different parts of the body and lungs is supplied by carotico-systemic trunk and pulmonary aortaoriginating from left ventricle and right ventricle respectively. 1. The blood to different parts of the body and lungs is supplied by three aortic arches (carotid, systemic and pulmocutaneous) oftrucus arteriosusoriginating from right side of the ventricle.
2. The systemic gives a pair of coronary arteries to supply blood to the wall of heart. 2. The blood to the wall of heart is supplied by coronary arteriesoriginating from carotid arches.
3. An innominate artery arises from the carotico systemic arch. 3. Innonimate artery is absent.
4. The innominate artery gives three arteries namely right subclavian, right carotid and left carotid. The left sub-clavian arises from the carotico -systemic directly. 4. The sub-clavians originate from the systemics on either side. Carotid arteriesare the branches of carotid arches on either side.
5. The carotid artery is divided into externaland internal carotid arteries on either side. The external carotid artery supplies blood to the tongue, jaw muscles salivary glands and Internal carotid artery supplies blood to cranium and parts of the brain. 5. The carotid arch is divided into i.Lingual artery to supply blood to the tongue and hyoid muscles and ii. Common carotid artery. The common carotid gives apalatine artery to the roof of buccal cavity and eyes and an Internal carotid-artery to the brain.
6.  Each sub-clavian is divided into 3 branches namely L Brachial artery to the fore limbs ii. Vertebral artery - to cavities of vertebrae, spinal cord and parts of brain and iii. Internal mammary artery to supply to thoracic and abdominal muscles. 6. The sub-clavian artery supplies blood to the forelimbs of that side.
7. The caratico-systemic trunk passes asdorsal aorta on the ventral side of vertebral column. 7. The dorsal aorta is formed by rightsystemic only.
8.  Paired intercostal arteries from the dorsal aorta supply to the body wall 8. Intercostal arteries are absent.
9. A pair of phrenic arteries supply blood to the diaphragm. 9.  Phrenic arteries are absent.
10. The coeliac artery originating from dorsal aorta supplies blood to the liver, spleen, stomach and duodenum. 10. The left systemic after communicating with right systemic separates as coeliaco-mesenteric artery that divides into i.Coeliac and ii. Anterior mesenteric. Coeliac supplies to stomach and liver.
11. The anterior mesenteric artery also originating directly from the dorsal aorta supplies to intestine, pancreas, caecum and colon. 11. The anterior mesenteric supplies to duodenum, ileum, spleen and proceeds as posterior mesenteric.
12. Posterior mesenteric artery supplies blood to colon and rectum. 12. The posterior mesenteric arterysupplies blood to the large intestine.
13. The dorsal aorta gives a pair of renal arteries to kidneys. 13. Four pairs of renal arteries supply blood to the kidneys fromdorsal aorta.
14. Gonadial arteries to the gonads originate directly from the dorsal aorta. 14. Gonadial arteries originate from the first pair of renal arteries.
15. A.pair of lumbar arteries supply blood to the dorsal body wall from dorsal aorta. 15. Lumbar arteries are absent.
16. Caudal artery supplies to the tail 16. Caudal artery is absent.
17. Iliolumbar artery arises from the common iliac and supplies to dorsal body wall. The common iliac divides into i. Internal iliac - to pelvis and ii. External iliac - to the hind limb. * A vesicular arises from common iliac to supply to urinary bladder. The external iliac terminates as femoral artery in the hind limb of that side. 17. Each iliac artery gives rise to i. vesiculo-epigastrictothe urinary bladder and ii.femoral artery to the outer part of thigh. The rest of iliac terminates as sciatic artery to supply to the hind limb.
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