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TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

Thursday, 28 September 2017 14:23

Total serum thyroxine includes both free and protein-bound thyroxine and is usually measured by competitive...

DISORDERS OF THYROID

DISORDERS OF THYROID

Thursday, 28 September 2017 01:34

Box 863.1 Terminology in thyroid disorders Primary hyper-/hypothyroidism: Increased or decreased function of thyroid gland...

FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Friday, 22 September 2017 13:37

The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process...

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Friday, 22 September 2017 00:03

The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that...

Plastic Eating Fungus Discovered in Pakistan by Chinese Scientists

Plastic Eating Fungus Discovered in Pakistan by Chinese Scientists

Sunday, 17 September 2017 23:37

In Quick Researchers have recognized a fungus which can damage down plastics. The species could...

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Friday, 08 September 2017 01:21

Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is...

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:53

Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease,...

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:53

Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of...

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Thursday, 07 September 2017 23:18

In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric...

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Tuesday, 05 September 2017 23:51

To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting...

Bioethics

Bioethics

Monday, 04 September 2017 18:27

Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine. It is also moral discernment as...

Animal Biotechnology

Animal Biotechnology

Monday, 04 September 2017 18:17

Animal biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology in which molecular biology techniques are used to...

Biophysics

Biophysics

Monday, 04 September 2017 18:09

Biophysics or biological physics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems. Biophysics...

Histopathology

Histopathology

Monday, 04 September 2017 17:55

Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia"study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the...

Physiology

Physiology

Monday, 04 September 2017 17:39

Physiology (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of') is the scientific study of...

Food Science

Food Science

Monday, 04 September 2017 17:26

Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food. The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as...

Ecology

Ecology

Monday, 04 September 2017 17:01

Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and...

Forensic Science

Forensic Science

Monday, 04 September 2017 16:36

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by...

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

Wednesday, 30 August 2017 23:26

Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1.   Figure 846.1 Microscopic...

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

Wednesday, 30 August 2017 01:21

Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1):  ...

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

Monday, 28 August 2017 01:46

Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function   Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular...

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

Sunday, 27 August 2017 13:15

Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of...

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

Sunday, 27 August 2017 01:43

Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and...

Estimation of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine by Prediction Equations

Estimation of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine by Prediction Equations

Saturday, 26 August 2017 22:35

One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a...

CLEARANCE TESTS TO MEASURE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)

CLEARANCE TESTS TO MEASURE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)

Saturday, 26 August 2017 12:44

Glomerular filtration rate refers to the rate in ml/min at which a substance is cleared...

RENAL BIOPSY: INDICATIONS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, COMPLICATIONS AND PROCEDURE

RENAL BIOPSY: INDICATIONS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, COMPLICATIONS AND PROCEDURE

Wednesday, 23 August 2017 22:32

Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous...

ROLE OF LABORATORY TESTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

ROLE OF LABORATORY TESTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

Thursday, 17 August 2017 21:35

In DM, applications of laboratory tests are as follows:   Diagnosis of DM Screening of...

PREGNANCY TESTS

PREGNANCY TESTS

Wednesday, 16 August 2017 12:56

Pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in serum or urine. Although pregnancy is the...

SEMEN ANALYSIS FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

SEMEN ANALYSIS FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

Tuesday, 15 August 2017 23:54

 Box 835.1 Contributions to semen volume   • Testes and epididymis: 10% • Seminal vesicles:...

SPERM FUNCTION TESTS OR FUNCTIONAL ASSAYS

SPERM FUNCTION TESTS OR FUNCTIONAL ASSAYS

Tuesday, 15 August 2017 01:44

These tests are available only in specialized andrology laboratories. The tests are not standardized thus...

IMMUNOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

IMMUNOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

Tuesday, 15 August 2017 01:04

ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES   The role of antisperm antibodies in causation of male infertility is controversial....

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

Monday, 14 August 2017 22:02

The most important test in semen analysis for infertility is microscopic examination of the semen....

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

Monday, 14 August 2017 13:42

Biochemical markers (Table 831.1) can be measured in semen to test the secretions of accessory...

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF SEMEN FOR INVESTIGATION OF INFERTILITY

Monday, 14 August 2017 13:04

Examination is carried out after liquefaction of semen that occurs usually within 20-30 minutes of...

EXAMINATION FOR THE PRESENCE OF SEMEN IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES

EXAMINATION FOR THE PRESENCE OF SEMEN IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES

Sunday, 13 August 2017 17:08

This includes examination of material obtained from vagina, stains from clothing, skin, hair, or other...

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF BLOOD IN URINE

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF BLOOD IN URINE

Sunday, 13 August 2017 02:34

1. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINARY SEDIMENT   Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3...

Telomere Indicator of Physiological Age

Telomere Indicator of Physiological Age

Saturday, 12 August 2017 13:06

Have you ever wondered, what is your physiological age? Is it more or less than...

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

Thursday, 10 August 2017 23:29

The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below:   Proteins...

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINE

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINE

Thursday, 10 August 2017 00:57

Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”....

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILE SALTS IN URINE

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILE SALTS IN URINE

Thursday, 10 August 2017 00:34

Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and...

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILIRUBIN IN URINE

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILIRUBIN IN URINE

Wednesday, 09 August 2017 12:21

Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and...

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF  KETONES IN URINE

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF KETONES IN URINE

Monday, 07 August 2017 18:11

The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic...

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF PROTEINURIA

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF PROTEINURIA

Monday, 07 August 2017 13:36

1. HEAT AND ACETIC ACID TEST (BOILING TEST)   This test is based on the...

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF GLUCOSE IN URINE

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF GLUCOSE IN URINE

Saturday, 05 August 2017 23:28

1. COPPER REDUCTION METHODS   A. Benedict’s qualitative test: When urine is boiled in Benedict’s...

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

Saturday, 05 August 2017 17:22

The parameters to be examined on physical examination of urine are listed below.   Volume...

TEST FOR DETECTION OF UROBILINOGEN IN URINE

TEST FOR DETECTION OF UROBILINOGEN IN URINE

Saturday, 05 August 2017 15:23

Fresh urine sample should be used because on standing urobilinogen is converted to urobilin, which...

LABORATORY TESTS IN PORPHYRIAS

LABORATORY TESTS IN PORPHYRIAS

Thursday, 03 August 2017 18:15

Porphyrias (from Greek porphura meaning purple pigment; the name is probably derived from purple discoloration...

PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN ANALYSIS

PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN ANALYSIS

Thursday, 03 August 2017 16:55

This is done by flow cytometric analysis for detection of lack of GpIb/IX in Bernanrd...

TEST FOR D-DIMER

TEST FOR D-DIMER

Thursday, 03 August 2017 16:33

D-dimer is derived from the breakdown of fibrin by plasmin and D-dimer test is used...

TEST FOR FIBRINOGEN/FIBRIN DEGRADATION PRODUCTS (FDPs)

TEST FOR FIBRINOGEN/FIBRIN DEGRADATION PRODUCTS (FDPs)

Thursday, 03 August 2017 13:02

FDPs are fragments produced by proteolytic digestion of fibrinogen or fibrin by plasmin. For determination...

QUALITY CONTROL OF ALL LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

QUALITY CONTROL OF ALL LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

Wednesday, 02 August 2017 09:18

Because diagnoses and treatment plans are made based on laboratory findings, it is imperative that...

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF MICROSCOPE

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF MICROSCOPE

Monday, 31 July 2017 18:06

Routine care and proper maintenance of microscope will ensure good performance over the years. In...

PRINCIPLES OF WORKING OF AUTOMATED HEMOTOLOGY ANALYZER

PRINCIPLES OF WORKING OF AUTOMATED HEMOTOLOGY ANALYZER

Monday, 31 July 2017 17:06

Automated hematology analyzers work on different principles:   Electrical impedance Light scatter Fluorescence Light absorption...

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATED HEMOTOLOGY ANALYZER

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATED HEMOTOLOGY ANALYZER

Sunday, 30 July 2017 18:20

AUTOMATED HEMOTOLOGY ANALYZER   Automation is a process of replacement of tasks hitherto performed by...

CAUSES OF ERRONEOUS RESULTS (INTERFERENCES CAUSING ABNORMAL RESULT) WITH HEMOTOLOGY ANALYZER

CAUSES OF ERRONEOUS RESULTS (INTERFERENCES CAUSING ABNORMAL RESULT) WITH HEMOTOLOGY ANALYZER

Saturday, 29 July 2017 19:18

CAUSES OF ERRONEOUS RESULTS (INTERFERENCES CAUSING ABNORMAL RESULT)   These are listed in Table 809.1...

PARAMETERS MEASURED BY HEMATOLOGY ANALYZERS

PARAMETERS MEASURED BY HEMATOLOGY ANALYZERS

Saturday, 29 July 2017 17:54

Parameters measured by hematology analyzers and their derivation are shown in Tables 808.1 and 808.2....

FLOW CYTOMETRY

FLOW CYTOMETRY

Saturday, 29 July 2017 15:37

FLOW CYTOMETRY   Flow cytometry is a procedure used for measuring multiple cellular and fluorescent...

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN FLOWCYTOMETRY

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN FLOWCYTOMETRY

Saturday, 29 July 2017 15:09

Fluorescence   A fluorochrome absorbs light energy and emits excess energy in the form of...

COMMON APPLICATIONS OF FLOW CYTOMETRY IN HEMATOLOGY

COMMON APPLICATIONS OF FLOW CYTOMETRY IN HEMATOLOGY

Friday, 28 July 2017 17:59

Leukemias and lympomas: Immunophenotyping (evaluation of cell surface markers), diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease,...

PLATELET AGGREGATION STUDIES

PLATELET AGGREGATION STUDIES

Friday, 28 July 2017 10:05

Platelet aggregation tests are carried out in specialized hematology laboratories if platelet dysfunction is suspected....

EXAMINATION OF BLOOD SMEAR

EXAMINATION OF BLOOD SMEAR

Thursday, 27 July 2017 11:22

A blood smear is examined for:   Red cells: Morphology, immature forms, inclusion bodies, arrangement...

MORPHOLOGY OF PLATELETS

MORPHOLOGY OF PLATELETS

Wednesday, 26 July 2017 17:45

Platelets are small, 1-3 μm in diameter, purple structures with tiny irregular projections on surface....

NUMERICAL ABNORMALITIES OF LEUKOCYTES

NUMERICAL ABNORMALITIES OF LEUKOCYTES

Wednesday, 26 July 2017 16:28

For meaningful interpretation, absolute count of leukocytes should be reported. These are obtained as follows:...

WHITE BLOOD CELLS MORPHOLOGY

WHITE BLOOD CELLS MORPHOLOGY

Wednesday, 26 July 2017 13:33

Approximate idea about total leukocyte count can be gained from the examination of the smear...

RED CELLS MORPHOLOGY

RED CELLS MORPHOLOGY

Tuesday, 25 July 2017 18:19

Red cells are best examined in an area where they are just touching one another...

PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF A COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF A COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

Tuesday, 25 July 2017 15:42

The microscope is the most important piece of equipment in the clinic laboratory. The microscope...

KOHLER ILLUMINATION

KOHLER ILLUMINATION

Tuesday, 25 July 2017 13:43

What is Kohler illumination? Kohler illumination is a method of adjusting a microscope in order...

PROCEDURES FOR THE COLLECTION OF BLOOD FOR HEMOTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

PROCEDURES FOR THE COLLECTION OF BLOOD FOR HEMOTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Monday, 24 July 2017 10:21

COLLECTION OF BLOOD   For reliable and accurate results of laboratory tests, it is essential...

SEQUENCE OF FILLING OF TUBES FOR HEMOTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

SEQUENCE OF FILLING OF TUBES FOR HEMOTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Saturday, 22 July 2017 12:14

SEQUENCE OF FILLING OF TUBES   Following order of filling of tubes should be followed...

USE OF PLASMA VS. SERUM [DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLASMA AND SERUM]

USE OF PLASMA VS. SERUM [DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLASMA AND SERUM]

Saturday, 22 July 2017 11:59

Plasma is the supernatant liquid obtained after centrifugation of anticoagulated whole blood.   Serum is...

PLAIN TUBES (Without any anticoagulant) AND FLUORIDE TUBES FOR COLLECTION OF BLOOD

PLAIN TUBES (Without any anticoagulant) AND FLUORIDE TUBES FOR COLLECTION OF BLOOD

Saturday, 22 July 2017 11:43

Plain tubes (i.e. without any anticoagulant) are used for chemistry studies after separation of serum:...

International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH)

International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH)

Saturday, 22 July 2017 11:23

The International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) was initiated as a standardization committee by...

USES OF ANTICOAGULANTS FOR HEMOTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

USES OF ANTICOAGULANTS FOR HEMOTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Saturday, 22 July 2017 10:04

Anticoagulants used for hematological investigations are ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), heparin, double oxalate, and...

ABO GROUPING AND Rh D GROUPING

ABO GROUPING AND Rh D GROUPING

Friday, 21 July 2017 11:48

ABO Grouping There are two methods for ABO grouping:   Cell grouping (forward grouping): Red...

FALSE REACTION IN ABO GROUPING

FALSE REACTION IN ABO GROUPING

Friday, 21 July 2017 11:19

Autoagglutination: Presence of IgM autoantibodies reactive at room temperature in patient’s serum can lead to...

Rh D GROUPING METHOD

Rh D GROUPING METHOD

Friday, 21 July 2017 10:47

D antigen is the most immunogenic after ABO antigens and therefore red cells are routinely...

Microplate Technique for Rh D Grouping

Microplate Technique for Rh D Grouping

Friday, 21 July 2017 10:28

Microplate is a polystyrene plate consisting of 96 micro wells of either U- or V-shape....

DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP BY SLIDE METHOD

DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP BY SLIDE METHOD

Wednesday, 19 July 2017 13:46

Principle   Red cells from the specimen are reacted with reagent antisera (anti-A and anti-B)....

DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP BY TUBE METHOD

DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP BY TUBE METHOD

Wednesday, 19 July 2017 12:53

Test tube method is more reliable than slide test, but takes longer time and more...

DIFFERENTIAL LEUKOCYTE COUNT (MANUAL METHOD)

DIFFERENTIAL LEUKOCYTE COUNT (MANUAL METHOD)

Wednesday, 19 July 2017 11:45

A WBC differential count gives us information regarding the proportion and numbers of individual leukocytes...

TOTAL ERYTHROCYTE COUNT (MANUAL METHOD)

TOTAL ERYTHROCYTE COUNT (MANUAL METHOD)

Tuesday, 18 July 2017 13:44

Erythrocyte (Gr. erythros, red; kytos, cell) or red blood corpuscles are circular, anucleated, highly flexible,...

MICRO METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV) OR HEMATOCRIT

MICRO METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV) OR HEMATOCRIT

Monday, 17 July 2017 17:57

Principle Anticoagulated whole blood is centrifuged in a capillary tube of uniform bore to pack...

MACRO METHOD (WINTROBE METHOD) FOR ESTIMATION OF PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV) OR HEMATOCRIT

MACRO METHOD (WINTROBE METHOD) FOR ESTIMATION OF PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV) OR HEMATOCRIT

Monday, 17 July 2017 17:34

Principle   Anticoagulated whole blood is centrifuged in a Wintrobe tube to completely pack the...

WHAT IS PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV) OR HEMATOCRIT? USES AND METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV)

WHAT IS PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV) OR HEMATOCRIT? USES AND METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV)

Monday, 17 July 2017 16:02

Packed cell volume (PCV) is the volume occupied by the red cells when a sample...

SPECIFIC GRAVITY METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN

SPECIFIC GRAVITY METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN

Monday, 17 July 2017 00:46

This is a rapid and simple method, which gives approximate hemoglobin value. It is commonly...

OXYHEMOGLOBIN METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN

OXYHEMOGLOBIN METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HEMOGLOBIN

Monday, 17 July 2017 00:21

In this method, blood sample is mixed with a weak ammonia solution. Absorbance of this...

CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Saturday, 15 July 2017 16:00

The major cells of the immune system are lymphocytes. Lymphocytes that are critical for immune...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Saturday, 15 July 2017 15:21

Lizard, bird and rabbit all these three animals come under the group amniota. The taking...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF FROG AND FISH

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF FROG AND FISH

Saturday, 15 July 2017 14:56

Kidneys are the major excretory organs in all vertebrates. Some other organs such as lungs,...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: VENOUS SYSTEM OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: VENOUS SYSTEM OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Saturday, 15 July 2017 03:49

Calotes is a cold blooded (poikilothermic) and terrestrial garden lizard. Pigeon is a ward blooded...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: VENOUS SYSTEM OF FROG AND FISH

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: VENOUS SYSTEM OF FROG AND FISH

Saturday, 15 July 2017 02:54

Scoliodon commonly called as shark fish is a poikilothermic (cold blooded) animal. It is cartilaginous...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Saturday, 15 July 2017 00:56

Calotes is  called as garden lizard. It is a poikilothermic terrestrial reptile. Columba is commonly...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF FISH (SCOLIODON) AND FROG (RANA)

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF FISH (SCOLIODON) AND FROG (RANA)

Friday, 14 July 2017 23:30

Scoliodon ( Shark) is a poikilothermic animal. It is a cartilaginous fish. Frog ( Rana)...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: HEART STRUCTURE OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: HEART STRUCTURE OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Friday, 14 July 2017 01:25

Calotes is a poikilothermic terrestrial lizard. Columba is pigeon adapted for aerial mode of life....

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: HEART STRUCTURE OF FROG AND FISH

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: HEART STRUCTURE OF FROG AND FISH

Friday, 14 July 2017 00:29

Scoliodon is a poikilothermc and cartilagenous fish. Rana is also poikilothermic and amphibious animal. In...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: HIND LIMBS SKELETON IN REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: HIND LIMBS SKELETON IN REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Thursday, 13 July 2017 01:27

The Appendicular skeleton is one of the divisions of the endo skeleton. It includes the...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: SKELETON OF THE FORE LIMBS IN LIZARD, BIRD AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: SKELETON OF THE FORE LIMBS IN LIZARD, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Thursday, 13 July 2017 00:25

The Appendicular skeleton is one of the divisions of the endo skeleton. It includes the...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: SKULL OF FISH, FROG, LIZARD, BIRD AND RABBIT

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: SKULL OF FISH, FROG, LIZARD, BIRD AND RABBIT

Tuesday, 11 July 2017 12:30

The hard parts of the animal body are collectively known as skeletal system or simply...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PELVIC GIRDLE OF BIRD, REPTILE AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PELVIC GIRDLE OF BIRD, REPTILE AND MAMMAL

Tuesday, 11 July 2017 02:50

The pelvic girdle is directly attached to the vertebral column in the sacral region. The...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PELVIC GIRDLE OF FROG AND SHARK

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PELVIC GIRDLE OF FROG AND SHARK

Tuesday, 11 July 2017 00:18

The hip or pelvic girdle' is present in the posterior side of the body to...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PECTORAL GIRDLE OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PECTORAL GIRDLE OF REPTILE, BIRD AND MAMMAL

Monday, 10 July 2017 18:59

The pectoral girdle is connected to the vertebral column through muscles and ligaments. The pectoral...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PECTORAL GIRDLE OF FISH AND FROG

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: PECTORAL GIRDLE OF FISH AND FROG

Monday, 10 July 2017 02:02

The skeletal system or skeleton includes the hard parts of the animal body. All the...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: RESPIRATION IN BIRDS, REPTILES AND MAMMALS

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: RESPIRATION IN BIRDS, REPTILES AND MAMMALS

Monday, 10 July 2017 00:09

Respiratory System in Bird   Respiratory System in Reptile   Respiratory System in Mammals  ...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: RESPIRATORY ORGANS OF FISH (SCOLIODON) AND FROG (RANA)

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: RESPIRATORY ORGANS OF FISH (SCOLIODON) AND FROG (RANA)

Sunday, 09 July 2017 19:32

Scoliodon (fish) is a poikilothermic cartilaginous fish. It is commonly known as shark. Rana (frog)...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRD, MAMMAL AND REPTILE

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRD, MAMMAL AND REPTILE

Sunday, 09 July 2017 17:53

Digestive System Of Bird: Eg: Pegion Digestive System (Columba) Digestive System Of Mammal: Eg: Rabbit...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: INTEGUMENT IN REPTILES, BIRDS AND MAMMALS

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: INTEGUMENT IN REPTILES, BIRDS AND MAMMALS

Saturday, 08 July 2017 17:52

Comparison Of Integument Derivatives In Calottes (Reptile), Columba (Bird) And Oryctolagus (Mammal) Calotes is a...

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: INTEGUMENT IN SCOLIODON AND RANA

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: INTEGUMENT IN SCOLIODON AND RANA

Saturday, 08 July 2017 16:54

COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT OF THE INTEGUMENT (SKIN) IN THE SCOLIODON (SHARK FISH) AND RANA (FROG) Scoliodon...

GONADS OF HERDMANIA

GONADS OF HERDMANIA

Saturday, 08 July 2017 00:17

Herdmania is a bisexual animal. It is a protogynous animal. Ovary matures’ first. Hence cross...

ORGANISATION OF HERDMANIA TADPOLE LARVA

ORGANISATION OF HERDMANIA TADPOLE LARVA

Saturday, 08 July 2017 00:03

Herdmania is a hermaphrodite animal. The fertilised eggs undergo holoblastic unequal clevage and it develops...

RETROGRESSIVE METAMORPHOSIS IN HERDMANIA

RETROGRESSIVE METAMORPHOSIS IN HERDMANIA

Friday, 07 July 2017 19:47

During metamorphosis the larva will loose all the chordate characters and attains an invertebrate like...

HERDMANIA: SPICULES IN THE TEST

HERDMANIA: SPICULES IN THE TEST

Friday, 07 July 2017 19:32

In the test of Herdmania two types of calcareous spicules are Present. They are:  ...

EXCRETORY ORGAN OF HERDMANIA

EXCRETORY ORGAN OF HERDMANIA

Friday, 07 July 2017 18:44

A neural gland is present above the brain in herdmaina. It is brown in colour....

NERVOUS SYSTEM OF HERDMANIA

NERVOUS SYSTEM OF HERDMANIA

Friday, 07 July 2017 18:29

Herdmania shows brain or nerve ganglion. It is 4 mm long. It is present in...

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS OF HERDMANIA

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS OF HERDMANIA

Friday, 07 July 2017 18:09

Herdmania is a simple ascidian, In Indian ocean this genus is represented by 4 species....

AFFINITIES OF UROCHORDATES

AFFINITIES OF UROCHORDATES

Friday, 07 July 2017 17:08

The typical tunicate looks like a non-chordate animal. If the life history of such animal...

CLASSIFICATION OF UROCHORDATA

CLASSIFICATION OF UROCHORDATA

Friday, 07 July 2017 16:29

Subphylum Urochordata is divided into three classes.   CLASS 1.  ASCIDIACEA CLASS 2. THALIACEA CLASS...

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF UROCHORDATA

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF UROCHORDATA

Thursday, 06 July 2017 23:42

The tunicates were first regarded as sponges. Lamark in 1816 placed Tunicata in between the...

ORGANOGENY IN AMPHIOXUS

ORGANOGENY IN AMPHIOXUS

Thursday, 06 July 2017 23:11

The development of organ system is called as Organogeny. In Amphioxus the gastrula elongates in...

REPRODUCTION IN AMPHIOXUS: POST FERTILISATION CHANGES

REPRODUCTION IN AMPHIOXUS: POST FERTILISATION CHANGES

Thursday, 06 July 2017 22:01

FATEMAP OF FERTILISED EGG OF AMPHIOXUS: Conklin in 1932 studied the fate map of Amphioxus....

REPRODUCTION IN AMPHIOXUS

REPRODUCTION IN AMPHIOXUS

Thursday, 06 July 2017 21:35

Amphioxus is a Cephalochordate animal. Its Life history in the early stages shows resemblance with...

ATRIUM IN AMPHIOXUS

ATRIUM IN AMPHIOXUS

Thursday, 06 July 2017 21:20

In amphioxus a big space is present, called Atrium it is lined by ectoderm. It...

ENDOSTYLE IN AMPHIOXUS

ENDOSTYLE IN AMPHIOXUS

Thursday, 06 July 2017 21:07

In the Urochordate and Cephalochordate animals the ventral side of the pharyhx wilI contains endostyle....

NOTOCHORD IN AMPHIOXUS

NOTOCHORD IN AMPHIOXUS

Thursday, 06 July 2017 20:53

In chordate animals notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord and pharyngeal slits are present.   In...

SKELETON IN AMPHIOXUS

SKELETON IN AMPHIOXUS

Thursday, 06 July 2017 20:40

Exoskeleton is absent in Branchiostama. Endoskeleton include the notochord, gelatinous rods and plates, fin-ray boxes...

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS OF AMPHIOXUS

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS OF AMPHIOXUS

Wednesday, 05 July 2017 17:18

Amphioxus belongs to Cephalochordate. In 1778 Amphioxus was first discovered and described by Palias. He...

CLASSIFICATION AND SYSTEMIC POSITION OF CEPHALOCHORDATE

CLASSIFICATION AND SYSTEMIC POSITION OF CEPHALOCHORDATE

Wednesday, 05 July 2017 16:29

The sub-phylum Cephalochordata includes a single class Leptocardii, which has single family, Branchiostomidae. The family...

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF CEPHALOCHORDATA

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF CEPHALOCHORDATA

Wednesday, 05 July 2017 00:16

Cephalochordata includes two genera, 1. Asymmetron and 2. Branchiostoma (Amphioxus). Cephalochordates are small fish like...

CLASSIFICATION PHYLUM CHORDATE

CLASSIFICATION PHYLUM CHORDATE

Tuesday, 04 July 2017 17:31

Phylum Chordate is divided into three Sub-Phyla.   SUB-PHYLUM: UROCHORDATA SUB-PHYLUM: CEPHALOCHORDATA SUB-PHYLUM: VERTEBRATA  ...

BIOLOGY OF CHORDATES

BIOLOGY OF CHORDATES

Tuesday, 04 July 2017 16:43

CHORDATES   The Phylum Chordate includes bilaterally symmetrical, metamerically segmented, triploblastic, enterocoelomate metazoans exhibiting hights...

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF CHORDATES

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF CHORDATES

Tuesday, 04 July 2017 16:28

The animal kingdom is divided into two sub-kingdoms:   Chordata Non-Chordata   GENERAL CHARACTRS OF...

ORIGIN OF CHORDATES

ORIGIN OF CHORDATES

Tuesday, 04 July 2017 16:12

THEORIES ABOUT ORIGIN OF CHORDATES   It is believed that Chordates have originated from invertebrates....

PLACENTA IN MAMMALS: STRUCTURE, TYPES AND FUNCTIONS

PLACENTA IN MAMMALS: STRUCTURE, TYPES AND FUNCTIONS

Monday, 03 July 2017 15:54

In Eutherian mammals the embryo develops in the uterus of mother. The developing embryo will...

Teeth Modifications in Mammals

Teeth Modifications in Mammals

Monday, 03 July 2017 15:37

There is an interrelation between the form of teeth arid nature of food. These may...

TOOTH DEVELOPMENT IN MAMMALS

TOOTH DEVELOPMENT IN MAMMALS

Sunday, 02 July 2017 21:54

The tooth develops partly from the epidermis and partly from the mesenchyme of dermis. Its...

EVOLUTION OF MAMMALIAN MOLAR

EVOLUTION OF MAMMALIAN MOLAR

Sunday, 02 July 2017 18:55

Two main theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of molars.   CONCRESCENCE THEORY...

DENTITION IN MAMMALS

DENTITION IN MAMMALS

Sunday, 02 July 2017 18:10

Teeth are the dermal derivatives of integument They are developed as a result of calcification...

CHARACTERS OF MAMMALIAN DENTITION

CHARACTERS OF MAMMALIAN DENTITION

Sunday, 02 July 2017 17:05

The mammalian teeth are placed in the muscular sockets in the jaw bones. This type...

DENTAL FORMULA IN MAMMALS

DENTAL FORMULA IN MAMMALS

Sunday, 02 July 2017 16:37

Mostly the number of teeth is fixed in each mammalian species. Mammalian heterodont dentition is...

SKIN OF MAMMALS (RABBIT)

SKIN OF MAMMALS (RABBIT)

Sunday, 02 July 2017 15:39

SKIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS IN MAMMALS The body of Rabbit is covered by skin. It...

Prickly Heat Rash: Cause, Symptoms and Treatment

Prickly Heat Rash: Cause, Symptoms and Treatment

Sunday, 02 July 2017 15:39

Prickly heat usually clears up on its own within a few days. However, in serious...

STERNUM OF RABBIT

STERNUM OF RABBIT

Sunday, 02 July 2017 15:31

In the mid ventral region of thorax of Rabbit sternum is present. It is made...

ORGAN OF CORTI OR COCHLEA

ORGAN OF CORTI OR COCHLEA

Sunday, 02 July 2017 08:08

The internal ear of rabbit includes "organ of corti" or Cochlea spirally coiled. Lagena is...

CLASSIFICATION OF MAMMALS: THERIA

CLASSIFICATION OF MAMMALS: THERIA

Sunday, 02 July 2017 01:19

THERIA   This group includes Mammals which show true mammals characters Infraclass Metatheria:   They...

CLASSIFICATION OF MAMMALS: PROTOTHERIA

CLASSIFICATION OF MAMMALS: PROTOTHERIA

Sunday, 02 July 2017 01:06

Mammalia is divided into two subclasses. 1) Prototheria 2) Theria   GENERAL CHARECTERS OF PROTHERIA...

GENERAL CHARECTERS OF MAMMALS

GENERAL CHARECTERS OF MAMMALS

Saturday, 01 July 2017 23:57

Mammal like Reptiles therapsida might have given Mammals. It occured at the end of Triassic...

PECTEN IN BIRDS

PECTEN IN BIRDS

Saturday, 01 July 2017 23:45

In the eye of the bird a comb like structure is present. It is called...

SYNSACRUM IN BIRDS

SYNSACRUM IN BIRDS

Saturday, 01 July 2017 23:29

In the birds vertebral column compound structure is present. It is called Synsacrum. It is...

BODY WALL OF BIRDS (AVES)

BODY WALL OF BIRDS (AVES)

Saturday, 01 July 2017 19:50

The body wall of birds has three regions, Skin, Muscles and Perito­neum.   The skin...

CLASSIFICATION OF AVES

CLASSIFICATION OF AVES

Saturday, 01 July 2017 17:28

Based on characters of  Aves Class is divided into 2 sub-classes. Sub class: i) Archeornithes...

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF BIRDS (AVES)

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF BIRDS (AVES)

Saturday, 01 July 2017 16:57

AN INTRODUCTION TO AVES (BIRDS)   Birds (AVES) are highly evolved vertebrates. In the Jurassic...

JACOBSONS ORGANS (SENSE ORGANS) IN REPTILES

JACOBSONS ORGANS (SENSE ORGANS) IN REPTILES

Saturday, 01 July 2017 01:40

In Reptiles the “organs of Jacobson” are well developed sac like chambers. They lie below...

CARAPACE AND PLASTRON

CARAPACE AND PLASTRON

Saturday, 01 July 2017 01:22

The trunk of chelonia is enclosed by Shell which has two parts, a dorsal carapace...

BITING MECHANISM OF A SNAKE

BITING MECHANISM OF A SNAKE

Saturday, 01 July 2017 00:18

Snakes consisting Poison Apparatus by the contraction of digastric muscles in Poison Apparatus in snake...

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKE

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKE

Friday, 30 June 2017 23:55

It has a pair of poison glands, or ducts and a pair of fangs. The...

CLASSIFICATION OF REPTILES

CLASSIFICATION OF REPTILES

Friday, 30 June 2017 21:58

Based on characters Reptiles is divided into Four sub class   ANAPSIDA PARAPSIDA DIAPSIDA SYNAPSIDA...

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF REPTILES

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF REPTILES

Friday, 30 June 2017 21:25

AN INTRODUCTION TO REPTILES   In the carboniferous period of palaeozoic era “Reptiles” arose from...

PARENTAL CARE IN THE MEMBERS OF CLASS AMPHIBIA

PARENTAL CARE IN THE MEMBERS OF CLASS AMPHIBIA

Friday, 30 June 2017 20:28

Amphibian include anurans, urodelans and apodans. In all these groups of amphibians we come across...

PAEDOGENSIS OR NEOTENY IN AMPHIBIANS

PAEDOGENSIS OR NEOTENY IN AMPHIBIANS

Friday, 30 June 2017 20:03

Neoteny is defined as the failure or delay of larva to metamorphose while becoming sexually...

CLASSIFICATION OF AMPHIBIA

CLASSIFICATION OF AMPHIBIA

Friday, 30 June 2017 18:39

Based on characters of amphibians the present day (extant) amphibians are classified Into 3 orders....

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF AMPHIBIA

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF AMPHIBIA

Friday, 30 June 2017 18:22

Amphibians are cold blooded vertebrates. In the Devonian period of palaeozoic era they were originated...

AN INTRODUCTION TO AMPHIBIANS

AN INTRODUCTION TO AMPHIBIANS

Friday, 30 June 2017 18:07

Amphibians are the earliest tetrapods. They were descended from fish like ancestors. They were developed...

AMPULIAE OF LORENZINI IN FISHES

AMPULIAE OF LORENZINI IN FISHES

Friday, 30 June 2017 17:55

On the upper and lower surfaces of the head a number of tin- branched structures...

INTERNAL EAR OF SHARK (OR) MEMBRANOUS LABRYTH

INTERNAL EAR OF SHARK (OR) MEMBRANOUS LABRYTH

Friday, 30 June 2017 17:19

It lies in the auditory capsule of the skull. It is useful for maintenance of...

CLASPERS IN SHARKS

CLASPERS IN SHARKS

Friday, 30 June 2017 16:50

In male shark claspers are present. The claspers are rod like copulatory organs present on...

OLFACTORY LOBES IN SHARKS

OLFACTORY LOBES IN SHARKS

Friday, 30 June 2017 16:31

In Scoliodon the olfactory lobes are olfactory organs or nasal sacs.   They are present...

NEUROMAST SYSTEM OR LATERAL TINS SENSE ORGANS IN FISHES

NEUROMAST SYSTEM OR LATERAL TINS SENSE ORGANS IN FISHES

Friday, 30 June 2017 16:10

On the lateral sides of think and tall lateral line canals are present. They are...

CLASSIFICATON OF PISCES (FISHES)

CLASSIFICATON OF PISCES (FISHES)

Friday, 30 June 2017 00:44

The super class Gnathostomata includes craniates, in which one pair of the visceral arches is...

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF FISHES (PIECES)

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF FISHES (PIECES)

Friday, 30 June 2017 00:12

Fishes are first evolved in silurian period of palaeozoic era. They increased their number in...

AMMOCOETES LARVA

AMMOCOETES LARVA

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 17:35

Ammocoetes Larvae: Matamorphosis   In the life history of Petromyzon a larval form is seen....

BRANCHIAL BASKET OF PETROMYZON

BRANCHIAL BASKET OF PETROMYZON

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 17:24

Branchial Basket   In Petromyzon the visceral skeleton contains branchial basket. It lies external to...

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PETROMYZON (LAMPREY) AND MYXINE (HAGFISH)

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PETROMYZON (LAMPREY) AND MYXINE (HAGFISH)

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 16:47

Myxine (Hagfish) Petromyzon (Lamprey) 1. Hag fishes are scavengers. They penetrate into the dead fishes...

CLASSIFICATION OF CYCLOSTOMATA

CLASSIFICATION OF CYCLOSTOMATA

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 15:49

The class Cyclostomata is divided into two orders:1) Petromyzonia and 2) Myxinoidea   Order 1:...

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF CYCLOSTOMES

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF CYCLOSTOMES

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 15:28

Cyclostomes’ are jawless vertebrates. They are primitive vertebrates. The cyclostomes are marine or fresh-water vertebrates....

CLASSIFICATION OF VERTEBRATA

CLASSIFICATION OF VERTEBRATA

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 14:51

SUB-PHYLUM VERTEBRATA is further divided into two super-classes.   AGNATHA, AND GNATHOSTOMATA.   SUPER-CLASS 1....

CHARACTERS OF VERTEBRATES

CHARACTERS OF VERTEBRATES

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 14:27

Vertebrates show the following characters, besides the chordate characters.   1. PRESENCE OF ENDO AND...

INTERESTING FACTS ON BOTANY

INTERESTING FACTS ON BOTANY

Wednesday, 28 June 2017 01:23

Pollination in RafflesiaBy flies/mites Dispersal of seeds in RafflesiaBy Elephant Smallest parasiteArceuthobium minutissimum — It...

INTERESTING FACTS ON BOTANY

INTERESTING FACTS ON BOTANY

Tuesday, 27 June 2017 17:19

National flower of PakistanJasmine (Jasminum) National flower of LondonRose National fruit of Pakistan and IndiaMango...

LARVAE OF PORIFERA, COELENTERATA AND PLATY HELMENTHES

LARVAE OF PORIFERA, COELENTERATA AND PLATY HELMENTHES

Tuesday, 27 June 2017 13:26

LARVAE OF PORIFERA   1. Parenchymula (Stereo- gastrula) - Leucosolenia 2. Rhagon - Higher sponges...

MOST PRIMITIVE ANIMALS

MOST PRIMITIVE ANIMALS

Tuesday, 27 June 2017 01:16

Most primitive primate Lemur     Most primitive mollusc Chaetoderma     Most primitive Arthropod...

BIOGENESIS THEORY IN MICROBIOLOGY

BIOGENESIS THEORY IN MICROBIOLOGY

Tuesday, 27 June 2017 00:44

The theory of biogenesis states that living things can only arise from living things and...

IMPORTANT THEORIES AND LAWS PIONEERS AND PROPOSERS IN BIOLOGY

IMPORTANT THEORIES AND LAWS PIONEERS AND PROPOSERS IN BIOLOGY

Tuesday, 27 June 2017 00:27

Allen’s Law – Allen Artificial Parthenogenesis – Loeb Axial Gradient theory – Child Bergman’s Rule...

DISCOVERERS AND INVENTORS IN BIOLOGY

DISCOVERERS AND INVENTORS IN BIOLOGY

Monday, 26 June 2017 23:39

Amino acid sequence of protein (insulin)Sanger Anaerobic release of energyL-Pasteur (1878) BacteriaLeeuwenhoek Pure culture of...

ANIMAL ANATOMY: POSITION AND FUCTIONS OF CANALS AND DUCTS

ANIMAL ANATOMY: POSITION AND FUCTIONS OF CANALS AND DUCTS

Monday, 26 June 2017 21:38

Previously we discussed about various exocrine glands in and foramen in animals. This topic covers...

WORLD DAYS WITH INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE

WORLD DAYS WITH INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE

Sunday, 25 June 2017 22:05

Antileprosy day30th Jan International Women day8th March World Handicaps day15th March World Forest day21st March...

FASTEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD

FASTEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD

Sunday, 25 June 2017 21:42

Fastest Mammal — Cheetah (Actiononyx jubatus) Fastest Bird — Spine tailed shift of Japan (fastest...

"LARGEST" FACTS IN ZOOLOGY

"LARGEST" FACTS IN ZOOLOGY

Sunday, 25 June 2017 01:17

Largest mammal — Blue Whale Heaviest mammal — Blue whale Largest Carnivora Kodiak — Beer...

FACTS OF ANIMAL WORLD

FACTS OF ANIMAL WORLD

Saturday, 24 June 2017 22:21

Most Intelligent HominidMan (Homo sapiens) Second Most Intelligent MammalDolphin Most Intelligent apeChimpanzee Heaviest bony fishPangarianodon...

SLOWEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD

SLOWEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD

Saturday, 24 June 2017 01:43

Slowest Mammal — Sloth Slowest wing beat in bird — Vulture Slowest flying bird —...

RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN PAKISTAN

RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN PAKISTAN

Saturday, 24 June 2017 00:25

Abdul Qadir Khan Research Laboratories Energy Conservation Cell (ENERCON), Islamabad Drainage Research Institute of Pakistan...

OVIPAROUS MAMMALS AND SPECIAL VIVIPAROUS ANIMALS

OVIPAROUS MAMMALS AND SPECIAL VIVIPAROUS ANIMALS

Friday, 23 June 2017 01:02

Viviparous Arthropod — Scorpion Viviparous urodela — Salamendra atra Viviparous Salamender — Salamandra atra Viviparous...

LARVAES OF ANIMALS

LARVAES OF ANIMALS

Friday, 23 June 2017 00:24

NEMATHEHELMETHIS LARVAE   Filariforrn (Roundworm) is larvae of Ancylostoma (Hookworm) Microfilariae is larvae of Wuchereria...

SMALLEST ANIMALS

SMALLEST ANIMALS

Thursday, 22 June 2017 18:58

Smallest Mammal — Shrew Smallest Bird — Humming bird of cuba (5.5 cm) Smallest ape...

IMPORTANT EXOCRINE GLANDS PRESENT IN ANIMALS - THEIR POSITION AND FUNCTIONS

IMPORTANT EXOCRINE GLANDS PRESENT IN ANIMALS - THEIR POSITION AND FUNCTIONS

Thursday, 22 June 2017 18:02

ACINUS GLANDS are present in Frog, rabbit, man at Skin, liver and pancreas its function...

FAMOUS BOOKS AND AUTHORS IN BIOLOGY

FAMOUS BOOKS AND AUTHORS IN BIOLOGY

Thursday, 22 June 2017 00:55

Historia Animalium — Aristotle Historia Plantarium — Theophrastus Origin of species — Charles Darwin Philosophic...

COMMENLY USED PREFIXES AND SUFIXES IN BIOLOGY

COMMENLY USED PREFIXES AND SUFIXES IN BIOLOGY

Tuesday, 20 June 2017 23:52

The following list is by no means complete, but it may help in understanding some...

WORLD LARGEST ZOO AND LARGEST MUSEUMS

WORLD LARGEST ZOO AND LARGEST MUSEUMS

Tuesday, 20 June 2017 18:08

Largest zoo in world is in Krusger (S. Africa) Largest collection of animals is in...

TYPES OF PHOBIA

TYPES OF PHOBIA

Friday, 16 June 2017 12:16

Agoraphobia — fear of open space Ailurophobia — fear of cats Androphobia — fear of...

MOST POISONOUS ANIMALS

MOST POISONOUS ANIMALS

Friday, 16 June 2017 12:04

Poisonous Lizard — Heloderma Poisonous fish — Stone fish Poisonous spider — Lectodectus (black widows)....

IMPORTANT FORAMEN

IMPORTANT FORAMEN

Friday, 16 June 2017 01:04

FORAMEN   Any small opening or orifice pore, or perforation is called foramen. Foramen filum...

BIOLOGY TERMS: FIRST USERS AND COINERS

BIOLOGY TERMS: FIRST USERS AND COINERS

Friday, 16 June 2017 00:26

BIOLOGICAL TERMS FIRST COINED AND FIRST USED   The following list contains some important terms...

Editors Pick

ROLE OF LABORATORY TESTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

ROLE OF LABORATORY TESTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

In DM, applications of laboratory tests are as follows:   Diagnosis of DM Screening of DM Assessment of glycemic control Assessment of associated long-term risks Management of acute metabolic complications....

EXAMINATION FOR THE PRESENCE OF SEMEN IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES

EXAMINATION FOR THE PRESENCE OF SEMEN IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES

This includes examination of material obtained from vagina, stains from clothing, skin, hair, or other body parts for semen. This is carried out in cases of alleged rape or sexual...

Telomere Indicator of Physiological Age

Telomere Indicator of Physiological Age

Have you ever wondered, what is your physiological age? Is it more or less than your chronological age? Physiological age determines a person’s health condition. Are we able to determine...

PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION AND PROPAGATION OF NERVE IMPULSE

PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION AND PROPAGATION OF NERVE IMPULSE

NERVE IMPULSES   The functions of neuron are irritability and conduction. Irritability is the response of an organism to the stimulus. Conduction is the transmission of nerve impulse through the...

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